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2022 ◽  
Vol 135 ◽  
pp. 108522
Darshini Subramanian ◽  
Raju Subha ◽  
Arul Kumar Murugesan

Bo Zhong ◽  
Shuang Wu ◽  
Geng Sun ◽  
Ning Wu

Ecosystem-based adaptation (EbA) is emerging as a cost-effective approach for helping people adapt to climate and non-climate changes. Nowadays, climate change and urbanization have affected agricultural systems, but it is not clear how rural communities have responded or adapted to those changes. Here, we chose two typical villages in the Chengdu Plain, southwest China, through sociological surveys on 90 local farmers with a semi-structured questionnaire, participatory observation, geospatial analysis of land use and land cover, and a literature review, to explore the local people’s perception of changes or disturbances and their adaptation strategies from the perspective of EbA. The results showed that climate change and urbanization had impacted agricultural systems dramatically in the last 40 years. In two case-study sites, climate change and urbanization were perceived by most local farmers as the main drivers impacting on agricultural production, but various resource-use models containing abundant traditional knowledge or practices as well as modern tools, such as information communication technology (ICT), were applied to adapt to these changes. Moreover, culture service through the adaptive decoration of rural landscapes is becoming a new perspective for implementing an EbA strategy. Finally, our findings highlighted the potential value of an EbA strategy for sustaining urban-rural integrated development and enhancing the resilience of agricultural systems.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-20
Soledad Natalia M. Dalisay ◽  
Vicente Y. Belizario ◽  
Joseph Aaron S. Joe ◽  
Carlo R. Lumangaya ◽  
Reginaldo D. Cruz

Abstract Schistosomiasis japonica remains a public health concern in many areas of the Philippines. Periodic Mass Drug Administration (MDA) to at-risk populations is the main strategy for morbidity control of schistosomiasis. Attaining MDA coverage targets is important for the reduction of morbidity and prevention of complications due to the disease, and towards achieving Universal Health Care. The study employed a qualitative case study design. Key informant interviews and focus group discussions were conducted to provide in-depth and situated descriptions of the contexts surrounding the implementation of MDA in two selected villages in known schistosomiasis-endemic provinces in Mindanao in the Philippines. Data analysis was done using the Critical Ecology for Medical Anthropology (CEMA) model coupled with the intersectionality approach. It was found that within various areas in the CEMA model, enabling as well as constraining factors have been encountered in MDA in the study settings. The interplay of income class, geographical location, gender norms and faith-based beliefs may have led to key populations being missed during the conduct of MDA in the study sites. The constraints faced by the target beneficiaries of MDA, as well as programme implementers, must be addressed to enhance service delivery and to control morbidity due to schistosomiasis. Improving compliance with MDA also requires a holistic, integrated approach to addressing barriers to participation, which are shaped by wider socio-political and power structures.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Demba Kodindo Israël ◽  
Cheick Amadou Coulibaly ◽  
Ibrahim Moussa Sissoko ◽  
Bourama Traoré ◽  
André B. B. Wilke ◽  

Leishmaniasis transmitted by sandflies is an important vector-borne disease. In Chad, information on sandflies is outdated, and so this study was designed to update the sandfly fauna. Sandflies were collected in five health districts representing two geoclimatic zones using sticky traps and pyrethrum sprays in indoor and peridomestic habitats between September 2019 and December 2020. All collected sandfly specimens were identified based on species-level morphological characters. A total of 2,015 specimens belonging to 13 species of sandflies (one Phlebotomus and twelve Sergentomyia) were collected and identified. The vector of human cutaneous leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus duboscqi, represents 0.65% of all collected sandflies and is the only representative of the Phlebotomus genus to be collected predominantly inside human dwellings. Phlebotomus orientalis, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis previously collected in Chad in 1976 was not found in this study. Sergentomyia clydei, Sergentomyia schwetzi, Sergentomyia antennata and Sergentomyia africana were the most abundant species collected with 44.71%; 22.73%; 16.03% and 11.17%, respectively. Sergentomyia schwetzi and Sergentomyia dubia, the two species involved in the transmission of canine leishmaniasis, were found in five and four study sites respectively. According to our results, the sandfly fauna of the two geoclimatic zones of Chad is comprised of 13 species. Our data showed that, unlike P. orientalis which was not found, P. duboscqi is present in four of the five sites surveyed. Therefore, these areas are at risk and remain potential foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, the need for further studies such as vector species detection, their seasonal fluctuations and their vector competence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 50 (1) ◽  
Mohammad Robed Amin ◽  
Mohammad Jahid Hasan ◽  
Md. Abdullah Saeed Khan ◽  
Md Abdur Rafi ◽  
Rafiqul Islam ◽  

Abstract Background Chikungunya is a severely debilitating disease. Bangladesh witnessed one of the largest outbreaks in 2017. Here, we described the clinical profile of the chikungunya outbreak in Bangladesh and its heterogeneity across three hotspots. Methods This was a descriptive cross-sectional study of 432 individuals interviewed from the outpatient department of three study sites (Dhaka, Chittagong, and Sitakundu Upazilla of Bangladesh) after confirmation by the study physicians. Both laboratory-confirmed cases and probable cases were recruited between July and October 2017. Results Of all, 18% (79) were laboratory confirmed, and 353 82% (335) were probable cases. The male:female ratio was almost equal (1.09:1), and the predominant age group was 18–59 years. The mean age of the presentation was 36.07 ± 13.62 (SD) years. Fever and arthralgia were the most common presentations and were present in > 95% of cases. Other frequent symptoms were fatigue, myalgia, headache, nausea, and vomiting. Approximately half of the patients had arthritis and erythematous rash. Arthritis was predominant in Chittagong city, while maculopapular rash was not observed in Sitakunda city. However, fatigue, nausea, and vomiting are more common among patients in Dhaka city. Significant heterogeneity of clinical manifestations was present across the three hotspots (p < 0.05 for all). Both confirmed and probable cases shared similar characteristics except muscle ache (p = 0.22) and rash (p = 0.37). Conclusion The clinical profile of chikungunya virus-induced disease displays significant location-related heterogeneity in Bangladesh during a large outbreak. Although the causes of such differences are unclear, improved public and medical personnel education on this condition may lead to earlier diagnosis and treatment.

ZooKeys ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 1081 ◽  
pp. 35-87
Juan Pablo Reyes-Puig ◽  
Carolina Reyes-Puig ◽  
Daniela Franco-Mena ◽  
Lou Jost ◽  
Mario H. Yánez-Muñoz

We present the results of herpetological surveys in two adjacent mountains where the EcoMinga Foundation protects the cloud forest in the Upper Rio Pastaza watershed, in the Llanganates Sangay Ecological Corridor in Ecuador. A rapid assessment of the amphibian communities of the study sites reveals a diverse and heterogeneous composition, dominated by terrestrial frogs from the genus Pristimantis. We also identify a cryptic diversity with a significant number of candidate new species. We describe two new species of terrestrial frogs of the genus Pristimantis. Pristimantis maryanneaesp. nov. is characterised by not having tympanum externally visible and having 2–3 subconical tubercles in the upper eyelid; and Pristimantis burtoniorumsp. nov. is characterised by the presence of red colouration in hidden surfaces of the hind-limbs, tubercles on the upper eyelid, interorbital tubercle and a row of rounded tubercles along the snout to the tip and a pale red venter with dark brown mottled pattern. Our samples from the two Reserves do not share species between them, so the proportion of shared species seems to be relatively low. In addition, we highlight the importance of updating the knowledge of amphibians that are restricted to this important conservation region and comment about the threats and composition of the amphibian communities on the eastern slopes of the Upper Rio Pastaza watershed.

2022 ◽  
Laurie C. Van De Werfhorst ◽  
Christopher L. Jerde ◽  
Marc W. Beutel ◽  
Andrew Brooks ◽  
Van Butsic ◽  

Abstract Tobacco and cannabis product use can result in debris (a.k.a. litter) on the landscape, with implications to soil and water quality and thus potential impacts to ecosystems. More information is needed regarding how much debris exists on the landscape, such that the magnitude of potential associated environment problems can be quantified. Such information can raise awareness in the public about environmental hazards from tobacco and cannabis product use. The goal of this protocol is to quantify, via a timed survey approach, the tobacco and cannabis debris load (i.e. cigarette butts, cannabis or e-cigarette waste) at study sites. Multiple sites in a geographical location may be of interest for comparative analysis, for example sites used regularly by humans (e.g. trails, parking lots, around buildings, garbage cans) versus other sites that are suspected to have low human use. In any case, the same survey data sheet would be used (included with this protocol). Each survey will take 15 minutes per site to conduct. In the process of surveying, debris is collected and retained for later sorting, counting, and photographic documentation. The time to sort and count the collected debris will depend on the quantity and diversity of debris collected.

2022 ◽  
Juwon Kong ◽  
Youngryel Ryu ◽  
Jiangong Liu ◽  
Benjamin Dechant ◽  
Camilo Rey-Sanchez ◽  

Mapping canopy photosynthesis in both high spatial and temporal resolution is essential for carbon cycle monitoring in heterogeneous areas. However, well established satellites in sun-synchronous orbits such as Sentinel-2, Landsat and MODIS can only provide either high spatial or high temporal resolution but not both. Recently established CubeSat satellite constellations have created an opportunity to overcome this resolution trade-off. In particular, Planet Fusion allows full utilization of the CubeSat data resolution and coverage while maintaining high radiometric quality. In this study, we used the Planet Fusion surface reflectance product to calculate daily, 3-m resolution, gap-free maps of the near-infrared radiation reflected from vegetation (NIRvP). We then evaluated the performance of these NIRvP maps for estimating canopy photosynthesis by comparing with data from a flux tower network in Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, California, USA. Overall, NIRvP maps captured temporal variations in canopy photosynthesis of individual sites, despite changes in water extent in the wetlands and frequent mowing in the crop fields. When combining data from all sites, however, we found that robust agreement between NIRvP maps and canopy photosynthesis could only be achieved when matching NIRvP maps to the flux tower footprints. In this case of matched footprints, NIRvP maps showed considerably better performance than in situ NIRvP in estimating canopy photosynthesis both for daily sum and data around the time of satellite overpass (R 2 = 0.78 vs. 0.60, for maps vs. in situ for the satellite overpass time case). This difference in performance was mostly due to the higher degree of consistency in slopes of NIRvP -canopy photosynthesis relationships across the study sites for flux tower footprint-matched maps. Our results show the importance of matching satellite observations to the flux tower footprint and demonstrate the potential of CubeSat constellation imagery to monitor canopy photosynthesis remotely at high spatio-temporal resolution.

Atmosphere ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 92
Joan Frédéric Rey ◽  
Stéphane Goyette ◽  
Mauro Gandolla ◽  
Martha Palacios ◽  
Fabio Barazza ◽  

Radon is a natural and radioactive gas that can accumulate in indoor environments. Indoor radon concentration (IRC) is influenced, among other factors, by meteorology, which is the subject of this paper. Weather parameters impact indoor radon levels and have already been investigated, but rarely in Switzerland. Moreover, there is a strong need for a better understanding of the radon behaviour inside buildings in Switzerland for public health concerns as Switzerland is a radon prone area. Based on long-term, continuous, and hourly radon measurements, radon distributions classified according to different weather event definitions were investigated and then compared at three different study sites in Western Switzerland. Outdoor temperature influences the most indoor radon, and it is globally anti-correlated. Wind influences indoor radon, but it strongly depends on intensity, direction, and building characteristics. Precipitation influences periodically indoor radon levels relatively to their intensity. Atmospheric pressure and relative humidity do not seem to be huge determinants on IRC. Our results are in line with previous findings and provide a vivid example in Western Switzerland. This paper underlines the different influence complexities of radon, and the need to communicate about it within the broader public and with construction professionals, to raise awareness.

2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (1) ◽  
pp. 66-72
R. Balasubramanian ◽  
S. Sahina ◽  

Aim: Climate and weather conditions play a crucial role in the dynamics and distribution of ticks and tick-borne diseases. In this study, we explored the influence of a heavy rainfall (flood) occurrence on the seasonal activity and density of host-seeking Haemaphysalis tick vectors in Wayanad district, Kerala, India. Methodology: Wayanad district in Kerala state was selected as the study area. Ticks were collected from December 2017 to May 2019, monthly for five consecutive days by dragging method. Tick density was analyzed with climate data obtained from the meteorological station. Results: The total number of ticks collected post-flood decreased to 59% in Kurichiyad (site 1) and 63% in Muthanga (site 2), and the seasonal nymphal peak density was shifted. A seasonal peak of tick activity was normally observed from December to February. This peak occurrence was missing after flood in the study areas created with waterlogging and vegetation overgrowth. Interpretation: The present study revealed the effect of flood events in the study sites with significant differences in the abundance of five Haemaphysalis tick species during pre and post-flood periods and forest and wildlife habitats. This difference in the changing climatic conditions and increasing annual flood seasons in the Western Ghats may shift this region's ticks questing activity and tick-borne disease ecology.

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