Contamination Control
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2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (21) ◽  
pp. 12123
Author(s):  
Aleksandra Bogdanowicz ◽  
Monika Zubrowska-Sudol ◽  
Andrzej Krasinski ◽  
Miroslaw Sudol

Research conducted so far on the presence of microplastics in the environment shows that these items are ubiquitous pollutants and therefore constitute an inherent part of our lives. This constitutes a significant problem in many aspects, and one of them is the correct identification of microplastics in environmental samples. Environmental samples can be easily contaminated by plastic microparticles from other sources if proper precautions are not taken during sampling and analysis. The consequence of not taking this cross-contamination into account when analysing the results may be their significant overestimation. This review aims to draw attention to the problem of cross-contamination that accompanies the collection and analysis of samples for the presence of microplastics, and to discuss this issue in a comprehensive manner. The article indicates potential sources of cross-contamination, lists the mitigation methods, and describes the possibilities of assessing this type of contamination. Moreover, the review examines how cross-contamination control appears in practice, based on the available literature data.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xinyi Guan ◽  
H Jochen Schenk ◽  
Mary R. Roth ◽  
Ruth Welti ◽  
Julia Werner ◽  
...  

Xylem sap of angiosperm species has been found to include low concentrations of polar lipids and nanoparticles, including surfactant-coated nanobubbles. Although the nanoparticles have been suggested to consist of polar lipids, no attempt has been made to determine if nanoparticle and lipid concentrations are related. Here, we examined concentrations of nanoparticles and lipids in xylem sap and contamination control samples of six temperate angiosperm species with a NanoSight device and based on mass spectrometry. We found (1) that the concentration of nanoparticles and lipids were both diluted when an increasing amount of sap was extracted, (2) that their concentrations were significantly correlated in three species, (3) that their concentrations were affected by vessel anatomy, and (4) that concentrations of nanoparticles and lipids were very low in contamination-control samples. Moreover, there was little seasonal difference, no freezing-thawing effect on nanoparticles, and little seasonal variation in lipid composition. These findings indicate that lipids and nanoparticles are related to each other, and largely do not pass interconduit pit membranes. Further research is needed to examine the formation and stability of nanoparticles in xylem sap in relation to lipid composition, and the complicated interactions among the gas, liquid, and solid phases in xylem conduits.


Author(s):  
Denisse Tatiana Molina-Aulestia ◽  
Carlos Ricardo Soccol ◽  
Antonio Irineudo Magalhães Júnior ◽  
Oranys Isaac González-Marín ◽  
Caroline Gusmão de Souza ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Author(s):  
Jennifer L. Eigenbrode ◽  
Robert Gold ◽  
John S. Canham ◽  
Erich Schulze ◽  
Alfonso F. Davila ◽  
...  

A key science priority for planetary exploration is to search for signs of life in our Solar System. Life-detection mission concepts aim to assess whether or not biomolecular signatures of life are present, which requires highly sensitive instrumentation. This introduces greater risk of false positives, and perhaps false negatives. Stringent science-derived contamination requirements for achieving science measurements on life-detection missions necessitate mitigation approaches that minimize, protect from, and prevent science-relevant contamination of critical surfaces of the science payload and provide high confidence to life-detection determinations. To this end, we report on technology advances that focus on understanding contamination transfer from pre-launch processing to end of mission using high-fidelity physics in the form of computational fluid dynamics and sorption physics for monolayer adsorption/desorption, and on developing a new full-spacecraft bio-molecular barrier design that restricts contamination of the spacecraft and instruments by the launch vehicle hardware. The bio-molecular barrier isolates the spacecraft from biological, molecular, and particulate contamination from the external environment. Models were used to evaluate contamination transport for a designs reference mission that utilizes the barrier. Results of the modeling verify the efficacy of the barrier and an in-cruise decontamination activity. Overall mission contamination tracking from launch to science operations demonstrated exceptionally low probability on contamination impacting science measurements, meeting the stringent contamination requirements of femtomolar levels of compounds. These advances will enable planetary missions that aim to detect and identify signatures of life in our Solar System.


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (5) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jeanne Moldenhauer

Warning letters and regulatory inspection observation reports (e.g., FDA 483) often provide useful information for assessing risks in your facility and preparing for upcoming inspections. Starting with the updates to the European Union’s Annex 1 for the Manufacture of Sterile Drugs there has been an increased focus on contamination control strategies in facilities. A contamination control strategy is an integral part of pharmaceutical manufacturing, whether sterile or non-sterile. For this article we are going to look at a series of observations for a vaccine production facility and how we might learn from these observations. Highlighted are some of the contamination control issues. The FDA 483 Report was published in redacted form.


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (5) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tim Sandle

In this article the author provides an overview of the characteristics of microbial attachment and the essential considerations when developing a contamination control strategy. This review paper assesses the factors affecting finish and roughness, primarily in relation to microbial attachment to stainless steel, while considering other related variables like contact height and shape of surface defects


2021 ◽  
Vol 25 (5) ◽  
Author(s):  
Tim Sandle

This paper assesses the transfer disinfection process, the available technologies and critical bio-decontamination aspects, focusing on the important criteria for device assessment and operation.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Glenn Hogan ◽  
Julia Eckenberger ◽  
Neegam Narayanen ◽  
Sidney P. Walker ◽  
Marcus J. Claesson ◽  
...  

AbstractConsiderable recent research has indicated the presence of bacteria in a variety of human tumours and matched normal tissue. Rather than focusing on further identification of bacteria within tumour samples, we reversed the hypothesis to query if establishing the bacterial profile of a tissue biopsy could reveal its histology / malignancy status. The aim of the present study was therefore to differentiate between malignant and non-malignant fresh breast biopsy specimens, collected specifically for this purpose, based on bacterial sequence data alone. Fresh tissue biopsies were obtained from breast cancer patients and subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Progressive microbiological and bioinformatic contamination control practices were imparted at all points of specimen handling and bioinformatic manipulation. Differences in breast tumour and matched normal tissues were probed using a variety of statistical and machine-learning-based strategies. Breast tumour and matched normal tissue microbiome profiles proved sufficiently different to indicate that a classification strategy using bacterial biomarkers could be effective. Leave-one-out cross-validation of the predictive model confirmed the ability to identify malignant breast tissue from its bacterial signature with 84.78% accuracy, with a corresponding area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.888. This study provides proof-of-concept data, from fit-for-purpose study material, on the potential to use the bacterial signature of tissue biopsies to identify their malignancy status.


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