Background Patient and socioeconomic factors both contribute to disparities in post-mastectomy reconstruction (PMR) rates. We sought to explore PMR patterns across the US and to determine if PMR rates were associated with Medicaid expansion. Methods The NCDB was used to identify women who underwent PMR between 2004-2016. The data was stratified by race, state Medicaid expansion status, and region. A multivariate model was fit to determine the association between Medicaid expansion and receipt of PMR. Results In comparison to Caucasian women receiving PMR in Medicaid expansion states, African American (AA) women in Medicaid expansion states were less likely to receive PMR (OR .96 [.92-1.00] P < .001). Patients in the Northeast (NE) had better PMR rates vs any other region in the US, for both Caucasian and AA women (Caucasian NE ref, Caucasian-South .80 [.77-.83] vs AA NE 1.11 [1.04-1.19], AA-South (.60 [.58-.63], P < .001). Interestingly, AA patients residing in the NE had the highest receipt of PMR 1.11 (1.04-1.19), even higher than their Caucasian counterparts residing in the same region (ref). Rural AA women had the lowest rates of PMR vs rural Caucasian women (.40 [.28-.58] vs .79 [.73-.85], P < .001]. Discussion Racial disparities in PMR rates persisted despite Medicaid expansion. When stratified by region, however, AA patients in the NE had higher rates of PMR than AA women in other regions. The largest disparities were seen in AA women in the rural US. Breast cancer disparities continue to be a complex problem that was not entirely mitigated by improved insurance coverage.
In vitro fertilization (IVF) is a well-established method to treat various causes of infertility. Some previous retrospective studies suggested a lower ovarian response in Asian women compared to Caucasian women. However, the ovarian stimulation regimens were not standardized, potentially confounding the findings. The objective of this study is to compare the number of oocytes obtained after ovarian stimulation between Chinese and Caucasian women undergoing IVF using a standardized stimulation regimen.
This is a prospective cohort study conducted in two tertiary IVF units in Hong Kong, China and Sydney, Australia from October 2016 to August 2019. A total of 192 women aged 18–42 years with a body weight > 60 kg underwent IVF with a standard ovarian stimulation regimen of 150 micrograms corifollitropin alfa (Elonva®) followed by 200 IU follitropin beta (Puregon®) per day. The number of oocytes retrieved in Chinese women treated in the Hong Kong center was compared to that of Caucasian women treated in the Australian center.
Serum AMH levels were similar between the two groups. Although women in the Chinese cohort were older and had a higher body mass index (BMI), longer duration of infertility and lower antral follicle count (AFC) than those in the Caucasian cohort in this study, no differences in the number of oocytes retrieved [11 (8–17) vs. 11 (6–17), p=0.29], total dosage and duration of stimulation and number of follicles aspirated were noted between the two ethnic cohorts. The peak estradiol level was greater in Chinese women than in Caucasian women. After controlling for age, BMI and AFC, ethnicity was a significant independent determinant of the number of oocytes obtained.
Chinese women had a higher number of oocytes after ovarian stimulation using a standardized stimulation regimen compared with Caucasian women undergoing IVF after controlling for age, BMI, AFC and AMH despite presenting later after a longer duration of infertility. Trial registration number: NCT02748278
Examination of physiological coregulation among marital partners suggests a dynamic interplay between partner physiology. Further, attachment dimensions of anxiety and avoidance mediate this coregulation during conflict. This study examined the role of attachment and race in predicting physiological coregulation for mothers and their adult daughters during emotional discussions. A sample of 23 African American and 17 Caucasian mother-daughter pairs (aged 26 to 83) completed interview sessions and Relationships Questionnaires. Pairs engaged in discussions (neutral, conflict, happy), while monitoring heart rate. HR difference scores were computed between pairs (bps; 0 meant no difference). Multiple Regressions revealed attachment anxiety and avoidance predicted HR variation between pairs for the neutral and happy discussions, differently by racial group (F(7,33)=3.297, p < 0.01). For African American women, increased anxiety predicted increased HR variation during neutral and happy discussions, whereas for Caucasian women, increased avoidance predicted increased HR variation. However, during conflict anxiety singularly predicted increased HR covariation (b = 5.03, p = 0.01), for both groups. Low anxiety and low avoidance predicted physiological coregulation (lower HR variance between pairs). Increased anxious attachment predicted partner dysregulation (increased HR variation between pairs) across all 3 discussions, moderated by avoidance for the Caucasian women. Results suggest attachment plays a role in regulating physiology under emotional stress, and that there may be important cultural differences in this relationship. Further examination will explore the dynamic interplay between attachment and physiological coregulation across adulthood and later life.
Adiponectin (rs17300539) is implicated in the pathogenesis of metabolic syndrome (MS), a common comorbidity of polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS). The aim of this study was to analyze the association between adiponectin gene polymorphism and incidence of MS in patients with PCOS. The study included 201 women (age 18 to 35 years), among them 81 patients with PCOS without concomitant MS, 70 subjects with PCOS and concomitant, and 50 regularly menstruating controls. Adiponectin gene polymorphism (11391 G/A, rs17300539) was determined by means of a real-time PCR. The study groups did not differ significantly in terms of their age and frequencies of various genotypes of the adiponectin gene polymorphism. The largest proportion in the whole group was Caucasian women (n = 178, 88.56%), who carried the GG genotype of the polymorphism; frequencies of GA and AA genotypes in the whole study group were 10.94% (n = 22) and 0.5% (n = 1), respectively. The presence of G or A allele of the rs17300539 adiponectin gene polymorphism was not associated with a greater likelihood of PCOS with/without concomitant MS. The hereby presented findings imply that MS is a common comorbidity in women with PCOS. However, the incidence of concomitant MS does not seem to be associated with adiponectin gene polymorphism.
The inhabitants of the vaginal ecosystem can harbor genetic determinants conferring antimicrobial resistance. However, detailed data about the distribution of resistance genes in the vaginal microbiome of pregnant women are still lacking. Therefore, we assessed the presence of macrolide (i.e., erm genes) and tetracycline (i.e., tet genes) resistance markers in the vaginal environment of Caucasian women at different gestational ages. Furthermore, the detection of resistance genes was related to the composition of the vaginal microbiota. A total of 228 vaginal samples, collected at different trimesters of pregnancy or during the puerperium, were tested for the presence of ermB, ermF, tet(W), and tet(M) by in-house end-point PCR assays. The composition of the vaginal microbiota was assessed through a microscopic evaluation (i.e., Nugent score) and by means of sequencing V3–V4 hypervariable regions of the bacterial 16 rRNA gene. Overall, the most detected resistance gene was tet(M) (76.7%), followed by ermB (55.2%). In 17% of women, mainly with a ‘normal’ vaginal microbiota, no resistance genes were found. Except for tet(W), a significant correlation between the positivity of resistance genes and a dysbiotic vaginal status (i.e., bacterial vaginosis (BV)) was noticed. Indeed, samples positive for at least one resistance determinant were characterized by a decrease in Lactobacillus spp. and an increase of BV-related genera (Prevotella, Gardnerella, Atopobium, Sneathia). A high predominance of vaginal Lactobacillus spp. (>85%) was associated with a lower risk of tet(W) gene detection, whereas the presence of Megasphaera (>1%) increased the risk of positivity for all analyzed genes. Different types of vaginal microbiota are associated with peculiar resistance profiles, being a lactobacilli-dominated ecosystem poor in or free of resistance genes. These data could open new perspectives for promoting maternal and neonatal health.
Purpose of the studyTo determine if multiple Genetic Risk Scores (GRSs) improve bone mineral density (BMD) prediction over single GRS in an independent sample of Caucasian women.Study designBased on summary statistics of four genome-wide association studies related to two osteoporosis-associated traits, namely BMD and heel quantitative ultrasound derived estimated BMD (eBMD), four GRSs were derived for 1205 individuals in the Genome-Wide Scan for Female Osteoporosis Gene Study. The effect of each GRS on BMD variation was assessed using multivariable linear regression, with conventional risk factors adjusted for. Next, the eBMD-related GRS that explained the most variance in BMD was selected to be entered into a multi-score model, along with the BMD-related GRS. Elastic net regularised regression was used to develop the multiscore model, which estimated the joint effect of two GRSs (GRS_BMD and GRS_eBMD) on BMD variation, after being adjusted for conventional risk factors.ResultsWith the same clinical risk factors having been adjusted for, the model that included GRS_BMD performed best by explaining 32.53% of the variance in BMD; the single-score model that included GRS_eBMD explained 34.03% of BMD variance. The model that includes both GRS_BMD and GRS_ eBMD, as well as the clinical risk factors, aggregately explained 35.05% in BMD variation. Compared with the single GRS models, the multiscore model explained significantly more variance in BMD.ConclusionsThe multipolygenic score model explained a considerable amount of BMD variation. Compared with single score models, multipolygenic score model provided significant improvement in explaining BMD variation.
Objective: To establish normative data for nipple-areola complex (NAC) sensibility examined with Semmes-Weinstein monofilament test (SWMT) and two-point discrimination (TPD) in women with varying breast sizes, including women with gigantomastia. We also aimed to identify clinical variables influencing NAC sensation. Methods: A total of 320 breasts in 160 Caucasian women (mean age 33.6 years, SD 11 years) were examined (including 50 hypertrophic breasts). NACs sensation was examined using Semmes-Weinstein monofilaments (SWM) and the Weber Two-Point Discrimination Test. Results: The nipple appeared to be the most sensitive part of NAC. In normal-sized breasts, sensation thresholds (SWM) correlated with: age, BMI, history of births, breast size and ptosis (for all locations), breastfeeding history (for nipple and upper areola) and areola diameter (for all locations apart from the nipple). Regression analysis showed that age, cup size and suprasternal notch-to-nipple distance are risk factors for diminished NAC sensation. Sensation thresholds in all NAC locations of hypertrophic breasts were significantly higher compared to normal-sized breasts, while TPD tests did not differ between the groups. Conclusions: We provided normative values of NAC sensation (tactile threshold and TPD) for different NAC areas. Our investigation indicated that SWM are useful diagnostic tools when the following factors are considered while examining NAC sensation: location (nipple vs. areola), age, breast size, suprasternal notch-to-nipple distance, history of births and breastfeeding. Hypertrophic breasts presented significantly higher sensation thresholds for all NAC locations. The report may serve as a reference data for further investigations regarding NAC sensation after different breast surgeries.
Central fat accumulation is a significant determinant of cardio-metabolic health risk, known to differ between ethnically distinct human populations. Despite evidence for preferential central adiposity in Asian populations, the proportional distribution between the subcutaneous and visceral compartments in Chinese postmenopausal women has not been thoroughly investigated. For this analysis, volumetrically quantified subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue (SAT, VAT) in the pelvic and abdominal regions of postmenopausal Asian (Chinese-Singaporean) and Caucasian (German) women matched for age and Body Mass Index (BMI) was undertaken, to examine such differences between the two groups. Volumes were calculated from segmentations of magnetic resonance imaging datasets of the abdomen and pelvis. Despite SAT, VAT, and the corresponding total adipose tissue (TAT) being similar between the groups, VAT/SAT and VAT/TAT were higher in the Asian group (by 24.5% and 18.2%, respectively, each p = 0.02). Further, VAT/SAT and VAT/TAT were positively correlated with BMI in the Caucasian group only (p = 0.02 and p = 0.01, respectively). We concluded that VAT is proportionally higher in the non-obese Asian women, compared to the Caucasian women of matched age and BMI. This conclusion is in agreement with existing literature showing higher abdominal adiposity in Asian populations. Additionally, in the Asian group, BMI did not correlate with visceral adiposity on a significant level. Further analysis is required to examine the extent to which this increased VAT may impact cardio-metabolic health. There is, however, a need to emphasize healthy lifestyle behaviors in non-obese post-menopausal women of Chinese ancestry.