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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 1-35
Atakan Doğan ◽  
Kemal Ebcioğlu

Hardware-accelerated cloud computing systems based on FPGA chips (FPGA cloud) or ASIC chips (ASIC cloud) have emerged as a new technology trend for power-efficient acceleration of various software applications. However, the operating systems and hypervisors currently used in cloud computing will lead to power, performance, and scalability problems in an exascale cloud computing environment. Consequently, the present study proposes a parallel hardware hypervisor system that is implemented entirely in special-purpose hardware, and that virtualizes application-specific multi-chip supercomputers, to enable virtual supercomputers to share available FPGA and ASIC resources in a cloud system. In addition to the virtualization of multi-chip supercomputers, the system’s other unique features include simultaneous migration of multiple communicating hardware tasks, and on-demand increase or decrease of hardware resources allocated to a virtual supercomputer. Partitioning the flat hardware design of the proposed hypervisor system into multiple partitions and applying the chip unioning technique to its partitions, the present study introduces a cloud building block chip that can be used to create FPGA or ASIC clouds as well. Single-chip and multi-chip verification studies have been done to verify the functional correctness of the hypervisor system, which consumes only a fraction of (10%) hardware resources.

2022 ◽  
Nikita Dmitriev ◽  
Sergey Koptyaev ◽  
Andrey Voloshin ◽  
Nikita Kondratiev ◽  
Valery Lobanov ◽  

Abstract Dual-comb interferometry is based on self-heterodyning two optical frequency combs, with corresponding mapping of the optical spectrum into the radio-frequency domain. The dual-comb enables diverse applications, including metrology, fast high-precision spectroscopy with high signal-to-noise ratio, distance ranging, and coherent optical communications. However, current dual-frequency-comb systems are designed for research applications and typically rely on scientific equipment and bulky mode-locked lasers. Here we demonstrate for the first time a fully integrated power-efficient dual-microcomb source that is electrically driven and allows turnkey operation. Our implementation uses commercially available components, including distributed-feedback and Fabry--Perot laser diodes, and silicon nitride photonic circuits with microresonators fabricated in commercial multi-project wafer runs. Our devices are therefore unique in terms of size, weight, power consumption, and cost. Laser-diode self-injection locking relaxes the requirements on microresonator spectral purity and Q-factor, so that we can generate soliton microcombs resilient to thermal frequency drift and with pump-to-comb sideband efficiency of up to 40% at mW power levels. We demonstrate down-conversion of the optical spectrum from 1400 nm to 1700 nm into the radio-frequency domain, which is valuable for fast wide-band Fourier spectroscopy, which was previously not available with chip-scale devices. Our findings pave the way for further integration of miniature microcomb-based sensors and devices for high-volume applications, thus opening up the prospect of innovative products that redefine the market of industrial and consumer mobile and wearable devices and sensors.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Isin Surekcigil Pesch ◽  
Eva Bestelink ◽  
Olivier de Sagazan ◽  
Adnan Mehonic ◽  
Radu A. Sporea

AbstractArtificial neural networks (ANNs) providing sophisticated, power-efficient classification are finding their way into thin-film electronics. Thin-film technologies require robust, layout-efficient devices with facile manufacturability. Here, we show how the multimodal transistor’s (MMT’s) transfer characteristic, with linear dependence in saturation, replicates the rectified linear unit (ReLU) activation function of convolutional ANNs (CNNs). Using MATLAB, we evaluate CNN performance using systematically distorted ReLU functions, then substitute measured and simulated MMT transfer characteristics as proxies for ReLU. High classification accuracy is maintained, despite large variations in geometrical and electrical parameters, as CNNs use the same activation functions for training and classification.

2022 ◽  
pp. 127-172
Ying Wang ◽  
Xuyi Cai ◽  
Xiandong Zhao

Carlos Gómez-Huélamo ◽  
Javier Del Egido ◽  
Luis Miguel Bergasa ◽  
Rafael Barea ◽  
Elena López-Guillén ◽  

AbstractAutonomous Driving (AD) promises an efficient, comfortable and safe driving experience. Nevertheless, fatalities involving vehicles equipped with Automated Driving Systems (ADSs) are on the rise, especially those related to the perception module of the vehicle. This paper presents a real-time and power-efficient 3D Multi-Object Detection and Tracking (DAMOT) method proposed for Intelligent Vehicles (IV) applications, allowing the vehicle to track $$360^{\circ }$$ 360 ∘ surrounding objects as a preliminary stage to perform trajectory forecasting to prevent collisions and anticipate the ego-vehicle to future traffic scenarios. First, we present our DAMOT pipeline based on Fast Encoders for object detection and a combination of a 3D Kalman Filter and Hungarian Algorithm, used for state estimation and data association respectively. We extend our previous work ellaborating a preliminary version of sensor fusion based DAMOT, merging the extracted features by a Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) using camera information for long-term re-identification and obstacles retrieved by the 3D object detector. Both pipelines exploit the concepts of lightweight Linux containers using the Docker approach to provide the system with isolation, flexibility and portability, and standard communication in robotics using the Robot Operating System (ROS). Second, both pipelines are validated using the recently proposed KITTI-3DMOT evaluation tool that demonstrates the full strength of 3D localization and tracking of a MOT system. Finally, the most efficient architecture is validated in some interesting traffic scenarios implemented in the CARLA (Car Learning to Act) open-source driving simulator and in our real-world autonomous electric car using the NVIDIA AGX Xavier, an AI embedded system for autonomous machines, studying its performance in a controlled but realistic urban environment with real-time execution (results).

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 440
Anup Vanarse ◽  
Adam Osseiran ◽  
Alexander Rassau ◽  
Peter van der Made

Current developments in artificial olfactory systems, also known as electronic nose (e-nose) systems, have benefited from advanced machine learning techniques that have significantly improved the conditioning and processing of multivariate feature-rich sensor data. These advancements are complemented by the application of bioinspired algorithms and architectures based on findings from neurophysiological studies focusing on the biological olfactory pathway. The application of spiking neural networks (SNNs), and concepts from neuromorphic engineering in general, are one of the key factors that has led to the design and development of efficient bioinspired e-nose systems. However, only a limited number of studies have focused on deploying these models on a natively event-driven hardware platform that exploits the benefits of neuromorphic implementation, such as ultra-low-power consumption and real-time processing, for simplified integration in a portable e-nose system. In this paper, we extend our previously reported neuromorphic encoding and classification approach to a real-world dataset that consists of sensor responses from a commercial e-nose system when exposed to eight different types of malts. We show that the proposed SNN-based classifier was able to deliver 97% accurate classification results at a maximum latency of 0.4 ms per inference with a power consumption of less than 1 mW when deployed on neuromorphic hardware. One of the key advantages of the proposed neuromorphic architecture is that the entire functionality, including pre-processing, event encoding, and classification, can be mapped on the neuromorphic system-on-a-chip (NSoC) to develop power-efficient and highly-accurate real-time e-nose systems.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 438
Sophini Subramaniam ◽  
Sumit Majumder ◽  
Abu Ilius Faisal ◽  
M. Jamal Deen

Wearable health monitoring devices allow for measuring physiological parameters without restricting individuals’ daily activities, providing information that is reflective of an individual’s health and well-being. However, these systems need to be accurate, power-efficient, unobtrusive and simple to use to enable a reliable, convenient, automatic and ubiquitous means of long-term health monitoring. One such system can be embedded in an insole to obtain physiological data from the plantar aspect of the foot that can be analyzed to gain insight into an individual’s health. This manuscript provides a comprehensive review of insole-based sensor systems that measure a variety of parameters useful for overall health monitoring, with a focus on insole-based PPD measurement systems developed in recent years. Existing solutions are reviewed, and several open issues are presented and discussed. The concept of a fully integrated insole-based health monitoring system and considerations for future work are described. By developing a system that is capable of measuring parameters such as PPD, gait characteristics, foot temperature and heart rate, a holistic understanding of an individual’s health and well-being can be obtained without interrupting day-to-day activities. The proposed device can have a multitude of applications, such as for pathology detection, tracking medical conditions and analyzing gait characteristics.

Erika Covi ◽  
Halid Mulaosmanovic ◽  
Benjamin Max ◽  
Stefan Slesazeck ◽  
Thomas Mikolajick

Abstract The shift towards a distributed computing paradigm, where multiple systems acquire and elaborate data in real-time, leads to challenges that must be met. In particular, it is becoming increasingly essential to compute on the edge of the network, close to the sensor collecting data. The requirements of a system operating on the edge are very tight: power efficiency, low area occupation, fast response times, and on-line learning. Brain-inspired architectures such as Spiking Neural Networks (SNNs) use artificial neurons and synapses that simultaneously perform low-latency computation and internal-state storage with very low power consumption. Still, they mainly rely on standard complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technologies, making SNNs unfit to meet the aforementioned constraints. Recently, emerging technologies such as memristive devices have been investigated to flank CMOS technology and overcome edge computing systems' power and memory constraints. In this review, we will focus on ferroelectric technology. Thanks to its CMOS-compatible fabrication process and extreme energy efficiency, ferroelectric devices are rapidly affirming themselves as one of the most promising technology for neuromorphic computing. Therefore, we will discuss their role in emulating neural and synaptic behaviors in an area and power-efficient way.

2022 ◽  
Nelson Kingsley Joel Peter Thiagarajan ◽  
Vijeyakumar K N ◽  
Saravanakumar S

Abstract Approximate computing is a modern techniques for design of low power efficient arithmetic circuits for portable error resilient applications. In this work, we have proposed a Adaptive Parallel Mid-Point Filter (APMPF) architecture using proposed imprecise Max-Min Estimator (MME)targeting digital image processing. Parallel architecture for the MME can trade-off hardware at the expense of accuracy are proposed and used in the proposed APMPF. In APMPF, we use three level of sorting to estimate the mid-point of 3 x 3 window. Switching based trimmed filter is proposed for precise estimation of the selected window. Experimental Results interms of Area, Power and Delay with 90nm ASIC technology exposed that to the least, Proposed filters demonstrate 7% and 9% Area Delay Product (ADP) and Power Delay Product (PDP) reductions, respectively, compared to precise filter design.

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