Guard Mother Cell
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Laura Serna

Stomata arose about 400 million years ago when plants left their aquatic environment. The last step of stomatal development is shared by all plant groups, and it implies a symmetrical cell division from the guard mother cell (GMC) to produce two guard cells (GCs) flanking a pore. In Arabidopsis, the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor MUTE controls this step, upregulating cell-cycle regulators of the GMC division, and immediately afterward, repressors of theses regulators like FAMA and FOUR LIPS. Recently, three grass MUTE orthologs (BdMUTE from Brachypodium distachyon, OsMUTE from rice, and ZmMUTE from maize) have been identified and characterized. Mutations in these genes disrupt GMC fate, with bdmute also blocking GC morphogenesis. However, because these genes also regulate subsidiary cell recruitment, which takes place before GMC division, their functions regulating GMC division and GC morphogenesis could be an indirect consequence of that inducing the recruitment of subsidiary cells. Comprehensive data evaluation indicates that BdMUTE, and probably grass MUTE orthologs, directly controls GMC fate. Although grass MUTE proteins, whose genes are expressed in the GMC, move between cells, they regulate GMC fate from the cells where they are transcribed. Grass MUTE genes also regulate GC morphogenesis. Specifically, OsMUTE controls GC shape by inducing OsFAMA expression. In addition, while SCs are not required for GMC fate progression, they are for GC maturation.

PLoS Genetics ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 15 (8) ◽  
pp. e1008377 ◽  
Hongliang Wang ◽  
Siyi Guo ◽  
Xin Qiao ◽  
Jianfei Guo ◽  
Zuliang Li ◽  

2018 ◽  
Vol 70 (3) ◽  
pp. 897-908 ◽  
Jiao Yin ◽  
Xiaoqian Zhang ◽  
Gensong Zhang ◽  
Yuanyuan Wen ◽  
Gang Liang ◽  

2017 ◽  
Farah Patell ◽  
David Newman ◽  
Eunkyoung Lee ◽  
Zidian Xie ◽  
Carl Collins ◽  

Abstract (180 words)Stomatal guard cells are formed through a sequence of asymmetric and symmetric divisions in the epidermis of the sporophyte of most land plants. We show that several D-type cyclins are consecutively activated in the stomatal linage in the epidermis of Arabidopsis thaliana. Whereas CYCD2;1 and CYCD3;2 are activated in the meristemoids early in the lineage, CYCD7;1 is activated before the final division. CYCD7;1 expression peaks in the guard mother cell, where its transcription is modulated by the FOUR-LIPS/MYB88 transcription factor. FOUR-LIPS/MYB88 interacts with the CYCD7;1 promoter and represses CYCD7;1 transcription. CYCD7;1 stimulates the final symmetric division in the stomatal lineage, since guard cell formation is delayed in the cycd7;1 mutant epidermis and guard mother cell (GMC) divisions in four-lips mutant guard mother cells are limited by loss of function of CYCD7;1. Hence, the precise activation of a specific D-type cyclin, CYCD7;1, is required for correct timing of the last symmetric division that creates the stomatal guards cells, and CYCD7;1 expression is regulated by the FLP/MYB pathway that ensures cell cycle arrest in the stomatal guard cells.Summary StatementThe formation of paired guard cells in the epidermis of the Arabidopsis thaliana shoot, requires the activity of the D-type cyclin CYCD7;1 for the normal timing of the final division.

T. C. Chou ◽  
K. C. Liu

The cotyledons of soybean seeds serve both as a food source and a photosynthetic organs for the early development of soybean seedlings. The development of the stomata of cotyledons should be important and related to the food source utilization and the mechanism of photosynthesis. During the study of the development of the cotyledon stomata of soybean seeds, a phenomenon was observed on the upper epidermal layer of the cotyledon, we call it. “the dormancy of the guard mother cell”, which is not reported in the literature available to us.Soybean seeds were soaked, planted and sampled at 24, 48, and 72 hours after planting. The upper epidermal layers were stripped with a sharp razor blade, and processed for observation with Hitachi S-2300 scanning electron microscope.

1991 ◽  
Vol 39 (1) ◽  
pp. 43 ◽  
DJ Carr ◽  
SGM Carr

The mode of stomatal development is studied in cotyledons, seedling and adult leaves of species of eucalypts and three species of Angophora. In the cotyledons of all species examined the early stomatal initials are unilabrate or dolabrate. The stomatal initials in seedling leaves of species of the Corymbosae and Clavigerae are anisocytic. In the 4th seedling leaf in species of a group we have previously called Monocalyptus the stomatal initials are also anisocytic. All other eucalypts retain the early cotyledonary mode of origin of stomata throughout life. These two modes of origin, whether anisocytic or by unilabrate and dolabrate initials, are set in all eucalypts from the 4th seedling leaf onward. Secondary characteristics of the adult stomata, e.g. number of subsidiary cells, are more complex than those of the seedling leaves; rarely, the relatively simple pattern of the seedling leaves may persist in the adult leaves of a given species. In species in which the initials in adult leaves are unilabrate or dolabrate, groups of stomata may share one or more subsidiary cells or be juxtaposed without an intervening subsidiary cell. The sister cell(s) of the guard mother cell may precociously develop a thicker cuticle than ordinary epidermal cells, and this may be apparent at maturity. The abaxial stomata of the cotyledons (but not of seedling or adult leaves) are regularly aligned parallel to the main venation. The existence of three main types of origin of stomata characteristic of three large non-interbreeding groups of eucalypts is of interest in the taxonomy of the genus.

1969 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 375 ◽  
JD Pickett-Heaps

The relationship between preprophase microtubules and asymmetrical cell division in the formation of the stomatal complex of C. cyanea was investigated. Polarization of nuclei and other cell organelles adjacent to the guard mother cell occurred in most cases without a preprophase band of microtubules being present; the grouping of preprophase microtubules appeared immediately prior to cell division, and its situation, even during abnormal stomatal development, predicted the plane of future division. The results show that preprophase microtubules cannot be the cytoplasmic agents involved in orienting and positioning the nucleus prior to division. Clear evidence was obtained indicating that preprophase microtubules move intact into the spindle. Some aspects of abnormal stomatal development are discussed, and the results are related to some other work on stomatal differentiation.

1966 ◽  
Vol 1 (1) ◽  
pp. 121-128

During the formation of stomata in the young leaves of wheat the cells divide in a characteristic manner; two of the cell divisions are asymmetrical and produce cells of unequal sizes. A study of the fine structure of the cells during mitosis has shown that a band of microtubules appears at each preprophase stage. This band, although it is not present in the subsequent stages of mitosis, indicates the location on the wall of the mother cell where the cell plate will join it at the final division of the cytoplasm at telophase. Thus the future plane of cell division is indicated by these microtubules at preprophase. Microtubules are also found at the growing edge of the cell plate and appear to function in directing the vesicles which are brought up to extend the plate. The cell plate which is formed to cut off the subsidiary cells on either side of the guard mother cell is curved, and the microtubules present in conjunction with this plate during its formation could function to align and hold it on the required position. The relationship of the guard mother cell to the divisions of the adjacent epidermal cells which form the subsidiary cells is discussed, and related to general problems of growth and differentiation.

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