Programmed Cell Death 1
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2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sukanya Raghavan ◽  
Nataliya Tovbis-Shifrin ◽  
Christina Kochel ◽  
Anandi Sawant ◽  
Marielle Mello ◽  
...  

Programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) blockade has a profound effect on the ability of the immune system to eliminate tumors, but many questions remain about the cell types involved and the underlying mechanisms of immune activation. To shed some light on this, the cellular and molecular events following inhibition of PD-1 signaling was investigated in the MC-38 colon carcinoma model using constitutive (PD-1 KO) and conditional (PD1cKO) mice and in wild-type mice treated with PD-1 antibody. The impact on both tumor growth and the development of tumor immunity was assessed. In the PD-1cKO mice, a complete deletion of Pdcd1 in tumor-infiltrating T cells (TILs) after tamoxifen treatment led to the inhibition of tumor growth of both small and large tumors. Extensive immune phenotypic analysis of the TILs by flow and mass cytometry identified 20-different T cell subsets of which specifically 5-CD8 positive ones expanded in all three models after PD-1 blockade. All five subsets expressed granzyme B and interferon gamma (IFNγ). Gene expression analysis of the tumor further supported the phenotypic analysis in both PD-1cKO- and PD-1 Ab-treated mice and showed an upregulation of pathways related to CD4 and CD8 T-cell activation, enhanced signaling through costimulatory molecules and IFNγ, and non-T-cell processes. Altogether, using PD-1cKO mice, we define the intrinsic nature of PD-1 suppression of CD8 T-cell responses in tumor immunity.


2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2.1) ◽  
pp. 79
Author(s):  
Chunyi Gao ◽  
Tianhui Hu

Tumor immune therapy, especially anti-programmed cell death ligand-1/programmed cell death-1 (PD-L1/PD-1) treatment, is currently the focus of substantial attention. However, despite its enormous successes, the overall response rate of cancer immunotherapy remains suboptimal. There is an increased interest in combining PD-L1/PD-1 treatment with anti-angiogenic drug Apatinib to enhance antitumor effect. Presently available data seem to suggest that Apatinib may exert immune suppressive effects to make the PD-L1/PD-1 treatment works. Here, we review the extensive tumor microenvironment immune modulatory effects from antiangiogenic agents Apatinib in order to supporting VEGFR2 targettherapies in clinical trials are existing.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tomohiro Ogawa ◽  
Keiko Kan-o ◽  
Ayaka Shiota ◽  
Akitaka Fujita ◽  
Yumiko Ishii ◽  
...  

Bronchial epithelial cells are front sentinels eliciting innate and adaptive immunity to respiratory viral pathogens. Recognition of viral double-stranded RNA induces antiviral interferon (IFN) responses in bronchial epithelial cells. Co-inhibitory molecules programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) and ligand 2 (PD-L2) were also induced on bronchial epithelial cells, which bind programmed cell death 1 on T cell and inhibit the function of virus-specific cytotoxic T lymphocyte. A previous study showed that antiviral type I IFN increased PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in cultured melanoma cells. However, it remains unknown whether antiviral IFNs affect PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in bronchial epithelial cells. In addition, we previously reported that inhibition of PI3Kδ signaling enhanced antiviral IFN responses in human primary bronchial epithelial cells (PBECs). Here we assessed the effect of exogenous IFNs or a selective PI3Kδ inhibitor IC87114 on PD-L1 and PD-L2 in PBECs stimulated with a synthetic double-stranded RNA poly I:C or human metapneumovirus. Treatment with IFNβ or IFNλ increased PD-L1 and PD-L2, and IFNβ or IFNλ treatment plus poly I:C further increased both expressions. Treatment with IC87114 or transfection with siRNA targeting PI3K p110δ enhanced poly I:C–induced gene and protein expression of PD-L2, whereas IC87114 suppressed poly I:C–induced PD-L1. IC87114 enhanced poly I:C–induced gene expression of IFNβ, IFNλ, and IFN-regulated genes via increased TBK1 and IRF3 phosphorylation. Transfection with siIRF3 counteracted the enhancement of poly I:C–induced PD-L2 by IC87114, whereas IC87114 suppressed poly I:C–induced PD-L1 regardless of transfection with siNC or siIRF3. Similar effects of IC87114 on PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression were observed in human metapneumovirus–infected PBECs. We showed for the first time that type I and type III IFNs induced the expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 in PBECs. Our findings suggest that during viral infections, inhibition of PI3Kδ differentially regulates PD-L1 and PD-L2 expression in bronchial epithelial cells.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Qiyi Zhang ◽  
Xingyu Liu ◽  
Shumei Wei ◽  
Lufei Zhang ◽  
Yang Tian ◽  
...  

ObjectiveWe investigated lenvatinib plus programmed cell death-1 (PD-1) inhibitors as a first-line treatment for initially unresectable biliary tract cancer (BTC).MethodsIn this Phase II study, adults with initially unresectable BTC received lenvatinib (body weight ≥60 kg, 12 mg; <60 kg, 8 mg) daily and PD-1 inhibitors (pembrolizumab/tislelizumab/sintilimab/camrelizumab 200 mg or toripalimab 240 mg) every 3 weeks. Primary endpoints were objective response rate (ORR) and safety. Secondary endpoints included surgical conversion rate, disease control rate (DCR), event-free survival (EFS), overall survival (OS) and tumor biomarkers.ResultsAmong 38 enrolled patients, the ORR was 42.1% and the DCR was 76.3%. Thirteen (34.2%) patients achieved downstaging and underwent surgery, six of whom (46.2%) achieved a major pathologic response (n=2) or partial pathologic response (n=4) in the primary tumor. In total, 84.2% of patients experienced ≥1 treatment-related adverse event (TRAE), 34.2% experienced a Grade ≥3 TRAE and no treatment-related deaths occurred. After a median follow-up of 13.7 months the median EFS was 8.0 months (95% CI: 4.6–11.4) and the median OS was 17.7 months (95% CI: not estimable).ConclusionsLenvatinib plus PD-1 inhibitors showed promising anti-tumor efficacy in patients with initially unresectable BTC and was generally well tolerated.Clinical Trial Registrationwww.chictr.org.cn, ChiCTR2100044476.


Biomolecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1749
Author(s):  
Jing-Jing Wang ◽  
Michelle Kwan-Yee Siu ◽  
Yu-Xin Jiang ◽  
Thomas Ho-Yin Leung ◽  
David Wai Chan ◽  
...  

Programmed cell death 1 ligand (PD-L1) blockade has been used therapeutically in the treatment of ovarian cancer, and potential combination treatment approaches are under investigation to improve the treatment response rate. The increased dependence on glutamine is widely observed in various type of tumors, including ovarian cancer. Kidney-type glutaminase (GLS), as one of the isotypes of glutaminase, is found to promote tumorigenesis. Here, we have demonstrated that the combined treatment with GLS inhibitor 968 and PD-L1 blockade enhances the immune response against ovarian cancer. Survival analysis using the Kaplan–Meier plotter dataset from ovarian cancer patients revealed that the expression level of GLS predicts poor survival and correlates with the immunosuppressive microenvironment of ovarian cancer. 968 inhibits the proliferation of ovarian cancer cells and enhances granzyme B secretion by CD8+ T cells as detected by XTT assay and flow cytometry, respectively. Furthermore, 968 enhances the apoptosis-inducing ability of CD8+ T cells toward cancer cells and improves the treatment effect of anti-PD-L1 in treating ovarian cancer as assessed by Annexin V apoptosis assay. In vivo studies demonstrated the prolonged overall survival upon combined treatment of 968 with anti-PD-L1 accompanied by increased granzyme B secretion by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells isolated from ovarian tumor xenografts. Additionally, 968 increases the infiltration of CD3+ T cells into tumors, possibly through enhancing the secretion of CXCL10 and CXCL11 by tumor cells. In conclusion, our findings provide a novel insight into ovarian cancer cells influence the immune system in the tumor microenvironment and highlight the potential clinical implication of combination of immune checkpoints with GLS inhibitor 968 in treating ovarian cancer.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Yunfei Wang ◽  
Kaikai Yi ◽  
Xing Liu ◽  
Yanli Tan ◽  
Weili Jin ◽  
...  

BackgroundCheckpoint blockade therapies targeting programmed death ligand 1 (PD-L1) and its receptor programmed cell death 1 promote T cell-mediated immune surveillance against tumors and have been associated with significant clinical benefit in cancer patients. The long-stranded non-coding RNA HOTAIR is highly expressed and associated with metastasis in a variety of cancer types and promotes tumor metastasis at least in part through association with the PRC2 complex that induces redirection to hundreds of genes involved in tumor metastasis. Here, we report that HOTAIR is an activator lncRNA of the NF-κB pathway and demonstrate that its apparent upregulation promotes inflammatory signaling and immune escape in glioma cells.MethodsBioinformatics analysis was used to elucidate the relationship between HOTAIR and NF-κB pathway in HOTAIR knockdown glioma cells. At the cytological level, protein hybridization and immunofluorescence were used to detect the response of proteins in the NF-κB signaling pathway to HOTAIR regulation. ChIP and ChIRP experiments identified HOTAIR target genes. Animal experiments verified alterations in inflammation and immune escape following HOTAIR knockdown and activity inhibition.ResultsHOTAIR activated the expression of proteins involved in NF-κB, TNFα, MAPK and other inflammatory signaling pathways. In addition, HOTAIR induced various proteins containing protein kinase structural domains and promoted the enrichment of proteins and complexes of important inflammatory signaling pathways, such as the TNFα/NF-κB signaling protein complex, the IκB kinase complex, and the IKKA-IKKB complex. In addition, HOTAIR aberrantly activated biological processes involved in glioma immune responses, T-cell co-stimulation and transcription initiation by RNA polymerase II. HOTAIR facilitated the induction of IκBα phosphorylation by suppressing the expression of the NF-κB upstream protein UBXN1, promoting NF-κB phosphorylation and nuclear translocation. In vivo, reduction of HOTAIR decreased PD-L1 protein expression, indicating that cells are more likely to be targeted by immune T cells.ConclusionIn conclusion, our results provide convincing evidence that lncRNA HOTAIR drives aberrant gene transcription and immune escape from tumor cells through the NF-κB pathway.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Tong-Bo Wang ◽  
Ze-Feng Li ◽  
Xiao-Jie Zhang ◽  
Chong-Yuan Sun ◽  
He Fei ◽  
...  

Abstract Background: Recently, the mutual effects of tumor cells and the tumor immune microenvironment have been identified as key factors in promoting cancer progression. Sulfatase 2 (SULF2) encodes an extracellular endoglucosamine‑6-sulfatase, which could remodel the highly sulfated domains of heparan sulfate. The abnormal expression of SULF2 is reported to play an important role in the carcinogenesis of many kinds of cancer. However, the prognostic value of SULF2 and its correlation with immune cell infiltration in gastric cancer (GC) remain unclear. Results: SULF2 expression was significantly increased in GC compared with gastric normal tissue, especially in the advanced stage GC. In addition, high SULF2 expression significantly predicted an unfavorable prognosis in GC patients (overall survival P=0.0074), particularly who had metastatic lymph nodes. Besides, pathway analyses of SULF2 in GC revealed SULF2 may take part in extracellular structure organization, cell-cell adhesion and proteoglycans in cancer, etc. Importantly, the expression level of SULF2 was found to be positively correlated with the infiltration levels of tumor associated macrophages (TAMs). Moreover, SULF2 expression in GC positively correlated with expression of several immune cell markers, including monocyte markers, TAMs markers and programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1), suggesting its role in regulating tumor immunity.Conclusion: This study identified distinct expression and prognostic values of SULF2 in GC using public databases. Significantly, our findings shed light on the role of SULF2 in GC progression and provided an underlying mechanism that SULF2 expression might modulate tumor immunity by regulating the infiltration of TAMs in GC.


PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (11) ◽  
pp. e0260206
Author(s):  
Fabienne Mazerolles ◽  
Frédéric Rieux-Laucat

The T cell expression of various co-signalling receptors from the CD28 immunoglobulin superfamily (Inducible T cell co-stimulator (ICOS), Programmed cell death 1(PD-1), cytotoxic T lymphocyte associated protein 4 (CTLA-4), B and T lymphocyte attenuator (BTLA) or from the tumour necrosis factor receptor superfamily (glucocorticoid-induced TNFR family related (GITR), 4-1BB, and CD27), is essential for T cell responses regulation. Other receptors (such as T cell immunoglobulin and mucin domain-containing protein 3, T cell immunoglobulin and T cell immunoglobulin and ITIM domain (TIGIT), and lymphocyte activation gene 3) are also involved in this regulation. Disturbance of the balance between activating and inhibitory signals can induce autoimmunity. We have developed an in vitro assay to simultaneously assess the function of naive CD4+ effector T cells (TEFFs), dendritic cells (DCs) and regulatory T cells (TREGs) and the expression of co-signalling receptors. By running the assay on cells from healthy adult, we investigated the regulation of activated T cell proliferation and phenotypes. We observed that TEFFs activated by DCs mainly expressed BTLA, ICOS and PD-1, whereas activated TREGs mainly expressed TIGIT, ICOS, and CD27. Strikingly, we observed that programmed death-ligand 1 (PD-L1) was significantly expressed on both activated TEFFs and TREGs. Moreover, high PD-L1 expression on activated TEFFs was correlated with a higher index of proliferation. Lastly, and in parallel to the TREG-mediated suppression of TEFF proliferation, we observed the specific modulation of the surface expression of PD-L1 (but not other markers) on activated TEFFs. Our results suggest that the regulation of T cell proliferation is correlated with the specific expression of PD-L1 on activated TEFFs.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Author(s):  
Xiaozhun Huang ◽  
Lin Xu ◽  
Teng Ma ◽  
Xin Yin ◽  
Zhangkan Huang ◽  
...  

BackgroundNivolumab and pembrolizumab disrupt the programmed cell death-1 immune checkpoint and display promising efficacy and safety results in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). However, the benefits remain limited. The preliminary results of lenvatinib (LEN) combined with immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) reveal that the combinations were well-tolerated and encouraging. This study aimed to analyze the safety and efficacy of LEN plus ICIs in a real-world cohort of patients with advanced HCC.MethodBetween June 4, 2017, and June 30, 2019, 16 patients received LEN plus nivolumab, and 13 patients were treated with LEN plus pembrolizumab, with the confirmed advanced HCC retrospectively analyzed. The clinical parameters, as well as the outcomes, were assessed.ResultsAll the patients had Barcelona Clinical Liver Cancer Stage C. LEN with ICIs was used as systemic second-, third-, and fourth-line treatments in seven (24.1%), 14 (48.3%), and eight (27.6%) patients, respectively. At the time of data cutoff, six patients (37.5%) were still receiving LEN with nivolumab, while another six patients (46.2%) were still receiving LEN with pembrolizumab. An objective response was recorded in seven patients (25.9%), while the best overall responses were from one complete response and six partial responses. The 6- and 12-month over survival (OS) rates were 62.6% and 53.7%, respectively. Furthermore, the 6- and 12-month progression-free survival (PFS) rates were 43.5% and 31.8%, respectively. In the subgroup analyses, the 6- and 12-month OS and PFS rates for patients treated with LEN plus nivolumab were 62.5% and 52.1%, respectively, and 43.8% and 30.0%, respectively. The 6- and 12-month OS and PFS rates for patients treated with LEN plus pembrolizumab were 51.3% and 51.3%, respectively, and 49.2% and 49.2%, respectively. A total of 11 (31%) deaths were reported in this study, four of which were attributed to grade 5 adverse events presented as fatal treatment-related hepatitis.ConclusionThe combination of LEN and ICIs is a promising new strategy for the treatment of HCC patients. However, high-grade hepatic toxicity was observed and further evaluation of this combination is still required.


Author(s):  
Shintaro Iwama ◽  
Tomoko Kobayashi ◽  
Yoshinori Yasuda ◽  
Takayuki Okuji ◽  
Masaaki Ito ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Previous studies showed that although the risk of thyroid dysfunction (thyroid immune-related adverse events [irAEs]) induced by anti-programmed cell death-1 antibodies (PD-1-Ab) was as low as 2–7% in patients negative for anti-thyroid-antibodies (ATAs) at baseline, it was much higher (30–50%) in patients positive for ATAs. However, whether a similar increase occurs with combination therapy using PD-1-Ab plus anti-cytotoxic T-lymphocyte antigen-4 antibody (CTLA-4-Ab) is unknown. Methods A total of 451 patients with malignancies treated with PD-1-Ab, CTLA-4-Ab, or a combination of PD-1-Ab plus CTLA-4-Ab (PD-1/CTLA-4-Abs) were evaluated for ATAs at baseline and for thyroid function every 6 weeks for 24 weeks after treatment initiation, and then observed until the last clinical visit. Results Of the 451 patients, 51 developed thyroid-irAEs after immunotherapy [41 of 416 (9.9%) treated with PD-1-Ab, 0 of 8 (0%) with CTLA-4-Ab, and 10 of 27 (37.0%) with PD-1/CTLA-4-Abs]. The cumulative incidence of thyroid-irAEs was significantly higher in patients who were positive versus negative for ATAs at baseline after both PD-1-Ab [28/87 (32.2%) vs. 13/329 (4.0%), p < 0.001] and PD-1/CTLA-4-Abs [6/10 (60.0%) vs. 4/17 (23.5%), p < 0.05] treatments. The risk of thyroid-irAEs induced by PD-1/CTLA-4Abs, which was significantly higher than that induced by PD-1-Ab, in patients negative for ATAs at baseline was not statistically different from that induced by PD-1-Ab in patients positive for ATAs at baseline. Conclusions This study showed that the incidence of thyroid-irAEs was high and not negligible after PD-1/CTLA-4-Abs treatment even in patients negative for ATAs at baseline.


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