Instrument Selection
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2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (8) ◽  
pp. 5397-5413
Eija Asmi ◽  
John Backman ◽  
Henri Servomaa ◽  
Aki Virkkula ◽  
Maria I. Gini ◽  

Abstract. Aerosol light absorption was measured during a 1-month field campaign in June–July 2019 at the Pallas Global Atmospheric Watch (GAW) station in northern Finland. Very low aerosol concentrations prevailed during the campaign, which posed a challenge for the instruments' detection capabilities. The campaign provided a real-world test for different absorption measurement techniques supporting the goals of the European Metrology Programme for Innovation and Research (EMPIR) Black Carbon (BC) project in developing aerosol absorption standard and reference methods. In this study we compare the results from five filter-based absorption techniques – aethalometer models AE31 and AE33, a particle soot absorption photometer (PSAP), a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a continuous soot monitoring system (COSMOS) – and from one indirect technique called extinction minus scattering (EMS). The ability of the filter-based techniques was shown to be adequate to measure aerosol light absorption coefficients down to around 0.01 Mm−1 levels when data were averaged to 1–2 h. The hourly averaged atmospheric absorption measured by the reference MAAP was 0.09 Mm−1 (at a wavelength of 637 nm). When data were averaged for >1 h, the filter-based methods agreed to around 40 %. COSMOS systematically measured the lowest absorption coefficient values, which was expected due to the sample pre-treatment in the COSMOS inlet. PSAP showed the best linear correlation with MAAP (slope=0.95, R2=0.78), followed by AE31 (slope=0.93). A scattering correction applied to PSAP data improved the data accuracy despite the added noise. However, at very high scattering values the correction led to an underestimation of the absorption. The AE31 data had the highest noise and the correlation with MAAP was the lowest (R2=0.65). Statistically the best linear correlations with MAAP were obtained for AE33 and COSMOS (R2 close to 1), but the biases at around the zero values led to slopes clearly below 1. The sample pre-treatment in the COSMOS instrument resulted in the lowest fitted slope. In contrast to the filter-based techniques, the indirect EMS method was not adequate to measure the low absorption values found at the Pallas site. The lowest absorption at which the EMS signal could be distinguished from the noise was >0.1 Mm−1 at 1–2 h averaging times. The mass absorption cross section (MAC) value measured at a range 0–0.3 Mm−1 was calculated using the MAAP and a single particle soot photometer (SP2), resulting in a MAC value of 16.0±5.7 m2 g−1. Overall, our results demonstrate the challenges encountered in the aerosol absorption measurements in pristine environments and provide some useful guidelines for instrument selection and measurement practices. We highlight the need for a calibrated transfer standard for better inter-comparability of the absorption results.

Maria Antonietta D'Agostino ◽  
Dorcas E Beaton ◽  
Lara J Maxwell ◽  
Sam Michel Cembalo ◽  
Alison Maria Hoens ◽  

Lara J Maxwell ◽  
Dorcas E Beaton ◽  
Maarten Boers ◽  
Maria Antonietta D'Agostino ◽  
Philip G Conaghan ◽  

Zanda Krukle ◽  
Raimonds Ernsteins ◽  

Applying governance process cycle steps model (5P model), the study focuses on the national environmental investment governance process by structuring and characterizing, particularly, investment planning process, including the integrative in-depth analysis of investment thematic content and framework (inextricably linked to the sectorial needs). Investment allocation is the governance instrument to be especially emphasized as being also necessary for the eventual implementation of all other governance instruments (such as infrastructure or communication ones), which all need financial support for their development, implementation or innovation. The study includes the investment instrument selection analysis at the policy planning stage for the most efficient investment and all sectorial policies implementation in order to reach the defined environmental governance goals. The study is practice-based research with elements of the participatory action research. Study is currently also topical since national investment planning process and final document is in the development process, detecting the main fields of investment in Latvia for the next 8 years. The structure and specifics of the planning stages of environmental investment governance process were identified along with related deficiencies and improvement needs, and, there were developed structured decision-making frame recommendation, based on the three main factors and subsequent set of complementary aspects identified as necessary required assistance to decide on the investment allocations.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 (6) ◽  
pp. 1594-1597
Seyed Kamran Soltani Arabshahi ◽  
Maryam Akbarilakeh ◽  
Hoorieh Mohammadi Kenari ◽  
Mohamed Elhassan Abdalla

Background: Professionalism is an exit learning outcome of health professions’ curricula. Much work has focused on professionalism teaching and little on the ways assessing it. The main goal was to develop composite assessment instrument as a battery accurately measured several aspects of learning professionalism in medical residents. Methods: The first step in battery development was to decide on the domains to be addressed. Based on the comprehensive review of the literature, a list of domains to assess was developed and identified specific assessment instruments for each domain. Based on the instrument selection criteria, forty one Assessment instruments were selected and developed to comprise the assessment battery. Results: The results are presented in 6 Section tests: duration, cost of each section, administration instruction, and scoring. The time required to complete the entire assessment battery was 100 minutes on average. Conclusions: The resulting battery was developed by selecting a set of validated assessment instruments and combining them into a battery. The assessment battery is easy to administer, easy for residents to complete, and provides a comprehensive assessment of a residents’ learning professionalism for teachers. Keywords: professionalism, learning, assessment, battery, residents

Haresh F. Chaudhary ◽  
Manthan Soni ◽  
Kuldeep R. Chaudhary

<p><strong>Background: </strong>The customary treatment of AIS is spinal fusion with instrumentation using rigid rods. In parallel, agents such as, curve magnitude, points of fixation, level instrument selection, curve flexibility, kind of anchor rods used for patients and post-operative care are the main factors affecting the outcome of surgery.</p><p><strong>Methods: </strong>A total 50 patients was included in the study. The control group, which included 31 patients treated with Ti rods, was compared with an experimental group of 19 patients treated with CCM rods. Correction surgery was performed through posterior approach using rod-rotation maneuver after inserting a pedicle screw in each vertebrae within the fusion. Six-millimeter CCM and six-millimeter Ti rods were used in experimental and control groups, respectively. Pre and postoperative indices of coronal alignment and sagittal alignment were measured.</p><p><strong>Results: </strong>There was no statistical difference between the two groups for age, sex, Risser’s stage, preoperative Cobb’s angle, type and flexibility of curvature. The correction rate of thoracic curve was 71.4±10.2% for the CCM group and 71.8±6.1% for the Ti group. There were no statistical differences between the two groups for all coronal and sagittal factors (p&gt;0.05).</p><p><strong>Conclusions: </strong>AIS cases with double curvature, there was no statistically significant difference between Ti and CCM rods for coronal and sagittal plane correction rates. The derivations from biomechanical studies do not translate into clinical situations.</p>

Alison Amoah ◽  
Nikhitha Joseph ◽  
Sophie Reap ◽  
Stephen Quinn

Background Guidelines standardise high-quality evidence-based management strategies for clinicians. Uterine fibroids are a highly prevalent condition and may exert significant morbidity. Objectives The purpose of this study was to appraise national and international uterine fibroid guidelines using the validated AGREE-II instrument. Selection Strategy An electronic database search of PubMed and EMBASE from inception to October 2020 for all published English-language uterine fibroid clinical practice guidelines was undertaken. Data Collection and Analysis 939 abstracts were screened for eligibility by two reviewers independently. Three reviewers used the AGREE-II instrument to assess guideline quality in six domains (scope and purpose, stakeholder involvement, rigour of development, clarity of presentation, applicability, and editorial independence). Recommendations were mapped to allow a narrative synthesis regarding areas of consensus and disagreement. Main Results Eight national (AAGL, SOGC 2014, ACOG, ACR, SOGC 2019, CNGOF, ASRM, and SOGC 2015) and one international guideline (RANZOG) were appraised. The highest scoring guideline was RANZOG 2001(score 56.5%). None of the guidelines met the a priori criteria for being high-quality overall (score >= 66%). There were 166 recommendations across guidelines. There were several areas of disagreement and uncertainty. Conclusions There is a need for high-quality fibroid guidelines given heterogeneity across individuals and a large range of treatment modalities available. There are also areas of controversy in the management of fibroids (e.g. Ulipristal acetate, power morcellation) which also should be addressed in any guidelines. Future guidelines should be methodologically robust to allow high-quality decision-making regarding fibroid treatments.

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