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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
pp. 117-123
Vivek Ahuja ◽  
Raghav Singhal ◽  
Paraag Kumar

Background: Liver diseases are a cause of worldwide morbidity .The course is usually long and has no signs before the development of late stage disease. The only indicative markers are liver enzymes, such as aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) during asymptomatic period. There is a paucity of data from our subcontinent regarding the prevalence, risk factors and etiology of asymptomatic chronically raised liver enzymes.The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence, risk factors and etiology associated with unexplained chronically raised liver transaminases in patients attending OPD in a tertiary care hospital.Methods:This was a prospective study conducted in the Department of Gastroenterology, MMIMSR, Mullana from July 2019-Dec 2020 in 50 patients who presented with chronically raised liver enzymes. Detailed comprehensive history, physical examination and investigation was done to identify etiology and risk factors associated with raised liver enzymes.Results:566 patients were screenedfor inclusion in the study. The prevalence of raised transaminases in asymptomatic patients was 9.4%. NAFLD was the most common etiology of raised liver transaminases, seen in 70 % of patients followed by Hepatitis C and Hepatitis B. Dyslipidemia was the most important risk factor associated with NAFLD.Conclusion:NAFLD should be kept in mind while dealing patients with unexplained transaminitis. Earlier detection could help halt the progression to chronic liver disease.

2022 ◽  
Vol 16 (1) ◽  
Hiroaki Hashimoto ◽  
Tomoyuki Maruo ◽  
Masami Nakamura ◽  
Yukitaka Ushio ◽  
Masayuki Hirata ◽  

Abstract Background Symptomatic pituitary metastasis is rare; furthermore, it can result in diabetes insipidus and panhypopituitarism. Since diabetes insipidus is masked by concurrent panhypopituitarism, it can impede the diagnosis of pituitary dysfunction. Case presentation A 68-year-old Japanese female suffering from pituitary and thalamic metastases caused by untreated breast cancer, underwent a biopsy targeting the thalamus, not the pituitary. She lacked prebiopsy pituitary dysfunction symptoms; however, these symptoms unexpectedly occurred after biopsy. Diabetes insipidus was masked by corticosteroid insufficiency, and she showed normal urinary output and plasma sodium levels. Upon commencement of glucocorticoid replacement therapy, the symptoms of diabetes insipidus appeared. Conclusions In this case, thalamic biopsy, as opposed to pituitary biopsy, was performed to preserve pituitary function. However, pituitary dysfunction could not be avoided. Caution is necessary for asymptomatic patients with pituitary metastases as invasive interventions, such as surgery, may induce pituitary dysfunction. Moreover, with respect to masked diabetes insipidus, there is a need to carefully consider pituitary dysfunction to avoid misdiagnosis and delayed treatment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
Wei Tu ◽  
Yu-Ye Li ◽  
Yi-Qun Kuang ◽  
Rong-Hui Xie ◽  
Xing-Qi Dong ◽  

Abstract Background Yunnan has the highest rates of HIV in China. Other treatable sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are associated with accelerated HIV transmission and poor ART outcomes, but are only diagnosed by syndromic algorithms. Methods We recruited 406 HIV-positive participants for a cross-sectional study (204 ART-naive and 202 receiving ART). Blood samples and first-voided urine samples were collected. Real-time polymerase chain reaction methods were used for diagnosing Chlamydia trachomatis (CT), Neisseria gonorrhea (NG) and Mycoplasma genitalium (MG). Syphilis and herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) tests were also performed. Results Among the 406 participants, the overall prevalence of STIs was 47.0% and 45.1% in ART-naive individuals and 49.0% in individuals receiving ART, respectively. The testing frequencies were 11.6% (11.8% vs. 11.4%), 33.2% (29.4% vs. 37.1%), 3.2% (3.4% vs. 3.0%), 2.0% (3.4% vs. 0.5%) and 4.7% (6.4% vs. 3.0%) for active syphilis, HSV-2, CT, NG and MG, respectively. The percentage of multiple infections in both groups was 10.8% (22/204) in ART-naive participants and 9.9% (20/202) in participants receiving ART. Female sex, an age between 18 and 35 years, ever injecting drugs, homosexual or bisexual status, HIV/HBV coinfection, and not receiving ART were identified as risk factors. Self-reported asymptomatic patients were not eliminated from having a laboratory-diagnosed STI. Conclusions The STI prevalence was 47.0% (45.1% vs. 49.0%), and HSV-2, syphilis and MG were the most common STIs in HIV-infected individuals. We found a high prevalence (6.4%) of MG in ART-naive individuals. HIV-positive individuals tend to neglect or hide their genital tract discomfort; thus, we suggest strengthening STI joint screening and treatment services among HIV-infected individuals regardless of whether they describe genital tract discomfort.

Carlos Michel Albuquerque Peres ◽  
Alyce Castro de Brito ◽  
Carlos Henrique Mesquita Peres ◽  
Alfredo Coimbra Reichl ◽  
Laila Patricia Fidelis Dutra

AbstractAtrial myxomas are the most common primary cardiac tumors and may manifest with neurological symptoms in ∼ 30% of cases. Cerebral ischemia, aneurysmal formation, and extravascular metastases are mechanisms that lead to these neurological manifestations. Perilesional changes on computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may help in the diagnosis of myxomatous aneurysms, which are usually located in the distal middle cerebral artery (MCA) and in the posterior cerebral artery (PCA) circulation territories. Careful resection of the cardiac lesion is essential for preventing embolism. However, treatment of myxomatous aneurysms is controversial due to the limited understanding of the natural history of this condition. Treatment may include clinical observation in asymptomatic patients, surgical resection, endovascular approaches, adjuvant chemotherapy, and low-dose radiation therapy. We present one case of a female patient with myxomatous aneurysm secondary to an atrial myxoma who presented with neurological symptoms and another case of a female patient who developed neurological symptoms after initial surgical treatment of the primary lesion. Lesion growth rate, topography, morphology, and the patient's clinical condition must be considered when choosing a therapeutical method. Further clinical studies are needed to achieve a better understanding and treatment of this disease.

2022 ◽  
Samantha M. Hall ◽  
Lena Landaverde ◽  
Christopher Gill ◽  
Grace Midori Yee ◽  
Madison Sullivan ◽  

RT-qPCR has been used as the gold standard method for detecting SARS-CoV-2 since early in the pandemic. At our university based high throughput screening program, we test all members of our community weekly. RT-qPCR cycle threshold (CT) values are inversely proportional to the amount of viral RNA in a sample, and thus are a proxy for viral load. We hypothesized that CT values would be higher, and thus the viral loads at the time of diagnosis would be lower in individuals who were infected with the virus but remained asymptomatic throughout the course of the infection. We collected the N1 and N2 CT values from 1633 SARS-CoV-2 positive RT-qPCR tests of individuals sampled between August 7, 2020, and March 18, 2021, at the BU Clinical Testing Laboratory. We matched this data with symptom reporting data from our clinical team. We found that asymptomatic patients had CT values significantly higher than symptomatic individuals on the day of diagnosis. Symptoms were followed by the clinical team for 10 days post the first positive test. Within the entire population, 78.1% experienced at least one symptom during surveillance by the clinical team (n=1276/1633). Of those experiencing symptoms, the most common symptoms were nasal congestion (73%, n=932, 1276), cough (60.0%, n=761/1276), fatigue (59.0%, n=753/1276), and sore throat (53.1%, n=678/1276). The least common symptoms were diarrhea (12.5%, n=160/1276), dyspnea on exertion (DOE) (6.9%, n=88/1276), foot or skin changes (including rash) (4.2%, n=53/1276), and vomiting (2.1%, n= 27/1276). Presymptomatic individuals, those who were not symptomatic on the day of diagnosis but became symptomatic over the following 10 days, had CT values higher for both N1 (median= 27.1, IQR 20.2- 32.9) and N2 (median=26.6, IQR 20.1-32.8) than the symptomatic group N1 (median= 21.8, IQR 17.2- 29.4) and N2 (median= 21.4, IQR 17.3- 28.9) but lower than the asymptomatic group N1 (median=29.9, IQR 23.6-35.5) and N2 (median= 30.0, IQR 23.1- 35.7). This study supports the hypothesis that viral load in the anterior nares on the day of diagnosis is a measure of disease intensity at that time.

2022 ◽  
Jose Lorenzo Romero-Trevejo ◽  
Lourdes Fernandez-Romero ◽  
Josue Delgado ◽  
Erika Muñoz-Garcia ◽  
Andres Sanchez-Perez ◽  

Abstract Background: Coronary artery disease (CAD) detection in asymptomatic patients still remains controversial. The aim of our study was to evaluate the usefulness of ophthalmologic findings as predictors of the presence of CAD when added to cardiovascular classic risk factors (CRF) in patients with acute coronary cardiopathy suspicion. Methods: After clinical stabilization, 96 patients with acute coronary cardiopathy suspicion were selected and divided in two groups: 69 patients with coronary lesions and 27 patients without coronary lesions. Their 192 eyes were subjected to a complete routine ophthalmologic examination. Samples of tear fluid were also collected to be used in the detection of cytokines and inflammatory mediators. Logistic regression models, receiver operating characteristic curves and their area under the curve (AUC) were analysed. Results: Suggestive predictors were choroidal thickness (CT) (OR: 1.02, 95% CI: 1.01-1.03) and tear granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF) (OR: 0.97, 95% CI: 0.95-0.99). We obtained an AUC of 0.9646 (95% CI: 0.928-0.999) when CT and tear G-CSF were added as independent variables to the logistic regression model with cardiovascular CRF: sex, age, diabetes, high blood pressure, hypercholesterolemia, smoking habit and obesity. This AUC was significantly higher (p=0.003) than the prediction derived from the same logistic regression model without CT and tear G-CSF (AUC=0.828, 95% CI: 0.729-0.927). Conclusions: CT and tear G-CSF improved the predictive model for CAD when added to cardiovascular CRF in our sample of symptomatic patients. Subsequent studies are needed for validation of these findings in asymptomatic patients.

2022 ◽  
Ana García-Martín ◽  
María Abellás Sequeiros ◽  
Ariana González Gómez ◽  
Luis Miguel Rincón Díaz ◽  
Juan Manuel Monteagudo Ruiz ◽  

Abstract AimsThe management of patients with asymptomatic significant aortic regurgitation (sAR) is often challenging and appropriate timing of aortic valve surgery remains controversial. Prognostic value of diastolic parameters has been demonstrated in several cardiac diseases. In particular, left atrial (LA) function has been shown to be an important determinant of morbimortality. The purpose of this study was to analyze the prognostic significance of diastolic function in asymptomatic patients with sAR.Methods and resultsA total of 126 patients with asymptomatic sAR were included. Conventional echocardiographic systolic and diastolic function parameters were assessed. LA and left ventricular (LV) auto-strain analysis was performed in a subgroup of 57 patients. During a mean follow up of 33±19 months, 25(19,8%) patients reached the combined end-point. Univariate analysis showed that LV volumes, LV ejection fraction (LVEF), LV-GLS, E wave, E/e’ ratio, LA volume and LA reservoir strain (LASr) were significant predictors of events. Multivariate model-1 that tested all classical echocardiographic variables statistically significant in the univariate model showed that LVEDV [HR=1,02;95% CI:1,01-1,03;(p<0,001)] and E/e’ ratio [HR=1,12;95% CI:1,03-1,23;(p=0,01)] were significant predictors of events. In the subgroup of patients with auto-strain analyzed, a multivariate model-2 including the previous significant variables for the first model as well as LASr, showed that LVEDV [HR=1,05;95% CI:1,01-1,08;(p=0,016)] and LASr [HR=0,8;95% CI:0,65-0,98;(p<0,035)] were the most significant predictors of cardiovascular events.ConclusionsIn this population of asymptomatic patients with sAR and normal LV systolic function, baseline diastolic parameters were prognostic markers of cardiovascular events; among them, LASr played a strong independent predictor role.

Encyclopedia ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 109-126
Sheila Veronese ◽  
Andrea Sbarbati

An asymptomatic patient is someone who contracts a disease but shows no symptoms. An immune subject is a person who is free from virus infection. Both of these categories of people experience the limitations of government imposed by a pandemic situation, with one important difference. Probably only the first subjects contribute, in spite of themselves, to the spread of the disease and to the contagion of the people most susceptible to the virus. This implies that their detection is essential to limit infections. Therefore, knowing the characteristics of these people and those immune to the virus can be extremely useful in mitigating the effects of the disease and/or defeating it.

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