Bethesda Guidelines
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2021 ◽  
pp. 000313482110318
Aaron J. Arroyave ◽  
Alan W. Good ◽  
Andrew J. Ward ◽  
Amila L. Orucevic ◽  
James M. McLoughlin

Lynch syndrome (LS) is a common genetic syndrome characterized by pathogenic mutations of DNA mismatch repair genes resulting in a hereditary predisposition to cancer. While typically associated with colonic and endometrial cancer, LS additionally influences the development of many other malignancies. The Amsterdam II and Revised Bethesda Guidelines are the established clinical criteria for diagnosing LS. These guidelines are based on the most general characteristics of LS and do not address specific characteristics of the less commonly LS-associated malignancies. For individuals that present initially with a non-colon and non-endometrial malignancy, recommendations and guidelines on when to consider screening for LS are limited. Therefore, it is essential that clinicians are familiar with distinct LS-associated patient- and tumor-specific characteristics, especially of the less common LS-associated cancers, so that LS’s diagnosis is not missed. In this review article, we focus on extra-colonic and extra-endometrial LS-associated cancers, paying particular attention to any established or currently investigated cancer features that help raise suspicion for LS and potentially lead to its earlier diagnosis. This review will also discuss current guidelines specific to each LS-associated malignancy.

2020 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
Wan Khairunnisa Wan Juhari ◽  
Khairul Bariah Ahmad Amin Noordin ◽  
Wan Faiziah Wan Abdul Rahman ◽  
Andee Dzulkarnaen Zakaria ◽  
Ahmad Shanwani Mohd Sidek ◽  

Background: Hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal cancer (HNPCC) also known as Lynch syndrome is commonly caused by genetic alterations in any of the four mismatch repair (MMR) genes; MLH1, MSH2, MSH6 and PMS2. This is the first study aimed to investigate genetic variants in Malay HNPCC families. Methods: Six Malay HNPCC families who fulfilled any of the Bethesda criteria were recruited into this study. A total of 3 ml of blood was withdrawn from each patient in the families. The samples were further analyzed using polymerase chain reaction and direct sequencing of the selected exons of MLH1 and MSH2 genes. Results: Two missense mutations and four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified in six patients. These variants in the MLH1 and MSH2 genes were identified in four families who met the revised Bethesda guidelines. In two families, no mutation and polymorphism was identified in both the exon and intron of the respective genes. Of the mutations and polymorphisms identified, five have never been reported in Malay HNPCC families before. A missense mutation was detected in exon 5 of the MLH1 gene, c.394G>C (p.Asp132His) and four mutations and polymorphisms were detected in the MSH2 gene; heterozygous c.211+98T>C and c.211+9C>G and homozygous c.211+98T>C and c.211+9C>G, c.367-86A>C and c.382C>G. Conclusion: The results represented a new spectrum of mutations and polymorphisms in the Malay HNPCC families. However, a larger study involving additional families and analysis is required to determine the impact and nature of the identified mutations and polymorphisms.

2019 ◽  
Vol 6 (4) ◽  
pp. 38-46
A. V. Semyanikhina ◽  
N. I. Pospekhova ◽  
M. G. Filippova ◽  
D. A. Golovina ◽  
A. O. Rasulov ◽  

Lynch syndrome is the most common cancer-prone syndrome associated with a high risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), neoplasms of the upper gastrointestinal system, the urinary tract, the female reproductive system, brain tumours and others. The only known form of hereditary endometrial cancer is also diagnosed as part of Lynch syndrome. One or more pathogenic germline mutations in one of the mismatch repair (MMR) genes are the cause of Lynch syndrome. Mapping of MMR genes and the discovery of microsatellite instability (MSI) have given rise to the possibility of using these clue characteristics of the pathogenic process for the elaboration of a screening test for Lynch syndrome. Being highly accurate and superior to all previously developed clinical criteria and guidelines, MSI-testing along with the assessment of the expression patterns of MMR proteins by immunohistochemistry has taken the leading role in the early diagnosis of Lynch syndrome. This article focuses on a brief review about the main evolutionary stages of clinical, anamnestic, molecular and genetic criteria for Lynch syndrome together with the results of our own research on the accuracy of the Amsterdam criteria, the Bethesda guidelines and MSI-diagnostics in the determination of the indications for MMR-genotyping in colorectal cancer patients suspected for Lynch syndrome.

Thitipat Thavornpattanapong ◽  
Kanet Kanjanapradit ◽  
Surasak Sangkhathat ◽  
Worrawit Wanitsuwan

Objective: This study aims to assess the accuracy of Amsterdam II criteria (AMII) and Revised Bethesda Guidelines (RBG) compared to molecular tests in Thai patients.Material and Methods: One hundred eighty-one patients were enrolled. Demographic data and pathological features and locations of tumors were recorded. Family history of the patients was reviewed by AMII and RBG. Tissue samples were collected and molecular testing was tested by microsatellite instability (MSI) analysis and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Statistical analysis was used to estimate the sensitivity and specificity of AMII and RBG compared to molecular testing.Results: Of the patients, 2.8% fulfilled the AMII criteria and 28.1% met the RBG criteria. Molecular testing showed 16.57% and 13.8% of the samples lost at least 1 out of 4 mismatch repair (MMR) proteins in the IHC test. In addition, 10.5% of patients had both microsatellite instability high (MSI-H) and loss of protein MMR expression. The sensitivity and specificity of AMII were 6.7% and 98.0%, respectively, while for the RBG they were 70.0% and 82.1%, respectively.Conclusion: The present study suggests that for patients who complete the AMII, doctors should be highly suspicious of Lynch syndrome, due to its high specificity. The RBG is useful for screening for Lynch syndrome and the selection of individuals for further molecular testing.

2018 ◽  
Vol 38 (8) ◽  
pp. 4871-4876 ◽  

2017 ◽  
Vol 35 (4_suppl) ◽  
pp. 611-611 ◽  
Xavier Sagaert ◽  
Sabine Tejpar ◽  
Linde Desmedt ◽  
Marijke Spaepen ◽  
Gert Matthijs ◽  

611 Background: Intratumour heterogeneity is a key challenge in colorectal cancer management. We have recently shown high levels of morphologic heterogeneity in microsatellite unstable (MSI) colorectal tumours (CRC). In this study we verified whether morphologic intratumour heterogeneity can be used as a guidance to test for molecular heterogeneity. Methods: 15 MSI CRCs tumour, characterized by a heterogenous morphology, were selected together with the associated metastasis. Macrodissection of the distinct morphologic tumour components was followed by MSI testing according to the Bethesda guidelines and Sanger sequencing for BRAF V600E mutations. In addition, 2 MSI CRC underwent macrodissection of the distinct morphologic components, followed by nanostring ncounter analysis. Results: MSI status varies between MSI-H and MSI-L in the primary tumours and 35% of the metastasis of MSI-H primary tumours presented as MSI-L or MSS. BRAF mutations status was constant throughout the primary tumours, but two BRAF mutated tumours presented with a BRAF wild type metastasis. Nanostring analysis revealed that ùorphologically identical clones clustered separately from tumour clones with a different morphologic display. Conclusions: Morphologically heterogeneous tumour compartments have less related gene expression profiles, linking morphologic homogeneity to molecular homogeneity. Our findings support the hypothesis that morphologic heterogeneity reflects molecular intratumour heterogeneity and can be used as a guidance for molecular testing of colorectal cancers.

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