Learning from errors as the main mechanism for motor adaptation has two fundamental prerequisites: a mismatch between the intended and performed movement and the ability to adapt motor actions. Many neurological patients are limited in their ability to transfer an altered motor representation into motor action due to a compromised motor pathway. Studies that have investigated the effects of a sustained and unresolvable mismatch over multiple days found changes in brain processing that seem to optimize the potential for motor learning (increased drive for motor adaptation and a weakening of the current implementation of motor programs). However, it remains unclear whether the observed effects can be induced experimentally and more important after shorter periods. Here, we used task-based and resting-state fMRI to investigate whether the known pattern of cortical adaptations due to a sustained mismatch can be induced experimentally by a short (20 min), but unresolvable, sensory–motor mismatch by impaired facial movements in healthy participants by transient facial tapping. Similar to long-term mismatch, we found plastic changes in a network that includes the striatal, cerebellar and somatosensory brain areas. However, in contrast to long-term mismatch, we did not find the involvement of the cerebral motor cortex. The lack of the involvement of the motor cortex can be interpreted both as an effect of time and also as an effect of the lack of a reduction in the motor error. The similar effects of long-term and short-term mismatch on other parts of the sensory–motor network suggest that the brain-state caused by long-term mismatch can be (at least partly) induced by short-term mismatch. Further studies should investigate whether short-term mismatch interventions can be used as therapeutic strategy to induce an altered brain-state that increase the potential for motor learning.
Imagine practicing a piece of music, or a speech, solely within the mind, without any sensory input or motor output. Our ability to implement dynamic internal representations is key for successful behavior, yet how the brain achieves this is not fully understood. Here we trained primates to perceive, and internally maintain, rhythms of different tempos and performed large-scale recordings of neuronal activity across multiple areas spanning the sensory-motor processing hierarchy. Results show that perceiving and maintaining rhythms engage multiple brain areas, including visual, parietal, premotor, prefrontal, and hippocampal regions. Each area displayed oscillatory activity that reflected the temporal and spatial characteristics of an internal metronome which flexibly encoded fast, medium, and slow tempos on a trial-by-trial basis. The presence of widespread metronome-related activity across the brain, in the absence of stimuli and overt actions, is consistent with the idea that time and rhythm are maintained by a mechanism that internally replays the stimuli and actions that define well-timed behavior.
Multiple paraneoplastic syndromes are a rare clinical manifestation. We describe the case of an 82-year-old woman who presented with neurological (rapidly progressive cerebellar syndrome and combined sensory-motor neuronopathy) and rheumatological (palmar fasciitis and polyarthritis syndrome) paraneoplastic syndromes associated with two onconeural antibodies (anti-Yo and Zic4), that revealed an ovarian cancer. The involvement of multiple organ systems should be a clue to take into consideration a paraneoplastic etiology that could permit early detection of cancer. However, despite the existence of treatments, the prognosis of these conditions remains poor.
The subject is a child with ADHD disorder with problems of lack of concentration and attention that is easily distracted. This affects performance in school and schoolwork that is not completed. Sensory Motor Play was done to improve the concentration of subjects so that their performance in school becomes better. This intervention uses a wide variety of games so that the subject was not easily bored and involves physical activity. The results of the intervention found that the concentration of the subject increased which was characterized by several completed tasks, showed the behavior of being able to wait in line and be able to control their voice.
Background: Maternal prenatal anxiety is among important public health issues as it may affect child development. However, there are not enough studies to examine the impact of a mother's anxiety on the child's early development, especially up to 1 year.Objective: The present prospective cohort study aimed to examine whether maternal trait anxiety, perceived social support, and COVID-19 related fear impacted speech-language, sensory-motor, and socio-emotional development in 12 months old Serbian infants during the COVID-19 pandemic.Methods: This follow-up study included 142 pregnant women (Time 1) and their children at 12 months (Time 2). Antenatal maternal anxiety and children's development were examined. Maternal anxiety was assessed using the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI). Child speech-language, sensory-motor, and socio-emotional development were assessed using the developmental scale in the form of an online questionnaire that examined the early psychophysiological child development. Information on socioeconomic factors, child and maternal demographics, clinical factors, and perceived fear of COVID-19 viral infection were collected. Multivariable General Linear Model analysis was conducted, adjusted for demographic, clinical, and coronavirus prenatal experiences, maternal prenatal anxiety levels, perceived social support, speech-language, motor skills, and cognitive and socio-emotional development at the infants' age of 12 months.Results: The study revealed the influence of the COVID-19 pandemic on maternal trait anxiety. The association between selected independent factors and infants' development was found in a demographically unified sample except for employment and the number of children. There was a correlation between all observed developmental functions. Univariate General Linear model statistical analysis indicated that linear models with selected independent factors and covariates could account for 30.9% (Cognition) up to 40.6% (Speech-language) of variability in developmental functions. It turned out that two-way and three-way interactions had a dominant role on models, and STAI-T Level and COVID-19 related fear were present in all interaction terms.Conclusion: Our findings reveal important determinants of child developmental outcomes and underline the impact of maternal anxiety on early child development. These findings lay the groundwork for the following interdisciplinary research on pregnancy and child development to facilitate and achieve positive developmental outcomes and maternal mental health.