Genetic Intervention
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2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 405
Author(s):  
Maide Barış

Germline genetic intervention (GGI) has been one of the most discussed topics within the bioethics literature since 2012, when the programming of CRISPR/Cas9 for a specifically targeted gene region has become possible. While some authors are optimistic about what GGI may offer, others strongly disagree and refute the use of this technology for different reasons. This paper will aim to examine one of the most widespread arguments against GGI, namely “heritability” argument, comprehensively. Firstly, it will aim to examine the moral importance of the germline. Secondly, it will try to understand three possible assumptions of the heritability argument. Then it will try to respond to these assumptions and argue that they are neither scientifically supportable nor rationally solid for rejecting GGI altogether.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 05 No. 04 October’21 Page: 405-411


Philosophies ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 5 (4) ◽  
pp. 28
Author(s):  
Aníbal Monasterio Astobiza

The natural-artificial distinction is not only an abstract metaphysical question dedicated to classifying and differentiating between entities and phenomena that occur in nature from man-made objects. The distinction between the natural and the artificial is central to the philosophy of technology and an interesting heuristic to discuss important notions about the growing process of technologization in sport. For example, if one accepts the natural-artificial distinction, one is against any genetic intervention to improve sports performance because one would consider it unnatural. In this article, I present an argument against the natural-artificial distinction and defend the ethical permissibility of the technologization of sport.


2019 ◽  
Author(s):  
Gustavo Lastiri-Pancardo ◽  
J.S Mercado-Hernandez ◽  
Juhyun Kim ◽  
José I. Jiménez ◽  
José Utrilla

AbstractEngineering resource allocation in biological systems for synthetic biology applications is an ongoing challenge. Wild type organisms allocate abundant cellular resources for ensuring survival in changing environments, reducing the productivity of engineered functions. Here we present a novel approach for engineering the resource allocation of Escherichia coli by rationally modifying the transcriptional regulatory network of the bacterium. Our method (ReProMin) identifies the minimal set of genetic interventions that maximise the savings in cell resources that would normally be used to express non-essential genes. To this end we categorize Transcription Factors (TFs) according to the essentiality of the genes they regulate and we use available proteomic data to rank them based on its proteomic balance, defined as the net proteomic charge they release. Using a combinatorial approach, we design the removal of TFs that maximise the release of the proteomic charge and we validate the model predictions experimentally. Expression profiling of the resulting strain shows that our designed regulatory interventions are highly specific. We show that our resulting engineered strain containing only three mutations, theoretically releasing 0.5% of their proteome, has higher proteome budget and show increased production yield of a molecule of interest obtained from a recombinant metabolic pathway. This approach shows that combining whole-cell proteomic and regulatory data is an effective way of optimizing strains in a predictable way using conventional molecular methods.ImportanceBiological regulatory mechanisms are complex and occur in hierarchical layers such as transcription, translation and post-translational mechanisms. We foresee the use of regulatory mechanism as a control layer that will aid in the design of cellular phenotypes. Our ability to engineer biological systems will be dependent on the understanding of how cells sense and respond to their environment at a system level. Few studies have tackled this issue and none of them in a rational way. By developing a workflow of engineering resource allocation based on our current knowledge of E. coli’s regulatory network, we pursue the objective of minimizing cell proteome using a minimal genetic intervention principle. We developed a method to rationally design a set of genetic interventions that reduce the hedging proteome allocation. Using available datasets of a model bacterium we were able to reallocate parts of the unused proteome in laboratory conditions to the production of an engineered task. We show that we are able to reduce the unused proteome (theoretically 0.5%) with only three regulatory mutations designed in a rational way, which results in strains with increased capabilities for recombinant expression of pathways of interest.HighlightsProteome reduction with minimal genetic intervention as design principleRegulatory and proteomic data integration to identify transcription factor activated proteomeDeletion of the TF combination that reduces the greater proteomic loadRegulatory interventions are highly specificDesigned strains show less burden, improved protein and violacein production


Diabetes ◽  
2019 ◽  
Vol 68 (Supplement 1) ◽  
pp. 2041-P
Author(s):  
TAKASHI YAMAMOTO ◽  
TAKANARI GOTODA

2019 ◽  
pp. 139-158
Author(s):  
Józef Binnebesel ◽  
Ditta Baczała ◽  
Piotr Błajet

Eugenics is the selection of desired heritable characteristics in order to improve future generations, typically in reference to humans. The article is about eugenics in historical, biological and educational aspects. The historical aspect is elaborated on and includes early eugenics, eugenics organizations, popular support for eugenics, and anti-eugenics sentiments. Despite the dropping of the term eugenics, eugenic ideas remained prevalent in many issues concerning human reproduction and genetic intervention. “New Eugenics” is a fact. “New Eugenics” includes education. Does it really?


2018 ◽  
pp. 7-13
Author(s):  
Alexander A. Orlov

Recently, the American geneticist David Reich, according to the results of studies, got by his group, published a hypothesis that 4.5 thousand years ago, the Iberian Peninsula was conquered by the tribes of nomadic pastoralists who came from the steppes of Eastern Europe, by so-called “people of the Yamnaya culture” (the Yamnaya people). Having a higher technological level (had four-wheeled carts, domesticated horses, etc.), those people quickly conquered the Iberian tribes, completely eliminating or enslaving the entire male autochthonous population. Such a rapid and, apparently, far from peaceful expansion led to the fact that the next generation of residents of the Iberian Peninsula had already 100% Y chromosomes (which are transmitted exclusively through the paternal line) of immigrants. The Yamnaya people brought their culture to the Peninsula, and probably the IndoEuropean language, the carriers and distributors of which they were, migrating across the expanses of Europe.


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