smear preparation
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Mehdi Ashik Chowdhury ◽  
Asim Ranjan Barua ◽  
- Asaduzzaman ◽  
Mohammad Mahabubul Hoque ◽  
DM Arifur Rahman

Background: Cervical cancer screening can actually prevent most cervical cancers and also facilitates early detection which allows fruitful treatment.Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of Liquid-based cytology (LBC) with conventional Pap smear test.Methods: This crosssectional study was conducted between March 2015 and June 2017. A total of 72 women participated in this study attending the Out-Patient Department (OPD) of Gynaecology (Colposcopy Clinic) of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU), Dhaka, Bangladesh, for VIA test. The smears prepared by the conventional Pap smear method and Liquid-based cytology method were observed by two independent observers in Department of Pathology of the same institution.Results: The mean age of the patients was 40.22±12.29 years. Considering histopathology as gold standard, in conventional Pap smear preparation our data suggested its sensitivity 87.5%, specificity 92.2%, accuracy 91.7%, positive predictive value 58.3% and negative predictive value 98.3%. In contrast, in Liquid-based cytology, we found its sensitivity 75.0%, specificity 90.6%, accuracy 88.9%, positive predictive value 50.0% and negative predictive value 96.7%.Conclusion: LBC has practical advantages over conventional preparation by producing monolayer of cells, smaller area to screen, reproducibility and availability of doing adjunct molecular techniques from residual sample. However, conventional preparation shows better sensitivity and positive predictive value and almost similar specificity, negative predictive value and accuracy with LBC.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Vol. 06 No. 01 January’22 Page: 36-40

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2155
Stephanie I. Pearlman ◽  
Eric M. Tang ◽  
Yuankai K. Tao ◽  
Frederick R. Haselton

In developing countries, the most common diagnostic method for tuberculosis (TB) is microscopic examination sputum smears. Current assessment requires time-intensive inspection across the microscope slide area, and this contributes to its poor diagnostic sensitivity of ≈50%. Spatially concentrating TB bacteria in a smaller area is one potential approach to improve visual detection and potentially increase sensitivity. We hypothesized that a combination of magnetic concentration and induced droplet Marangoni flow would spatially concentrate Mycobacterium tuberculosis on the slide surface by preferential deposition of beads and TB–bead complexes in the center of an evaporating droplet. To this end, slide substrate and droplet solvent thermal conductivities and solvent surface tension, variables known to impact microfluidic flow patterns in evaporating droplets, were varied to select the most appropriate slide surface coating. Optimization in a model system used goniometry, optical coherence tomography, and microscope images of the final deposition pattern to observe the droplet flows and maximize central deposition of 1 μm fluorescent polystyrene particles and 200 nm nanoparticles (NPs) in 2 μL droplets. Rain-X® polysiloxane glass coating was identified as the best substrate material, with a PBS-Tween droplet solvent. The use of smaller, 200 nm magnetic NPs instead of larger 1 μm beads allowed for bright field imaging of bacteria. Using these optimized components, we compared standard smear methods to the Marangoni-based spatial concentration system, which was paired with magnetic enrichment using iron oxide NPs, isolating M. bovis BCG (BCG) from samples containing 0 and 103 to 106 bacilli/mL. Compared to standard smear preparation, paired analysis demonstrated a combined volumetric and spatial sample enrichment of 100-fold. With further refinement, this magnetic/Marangoni flow concentration approach is expected to improve whole-pathogen microscopy-based diagnosis of TB and other infectious diseases.

2021 ◽  
pp. e00253
Quang Huy Vu ◽  
Hy Triet Van ◽  
Van Thanh Tran ◽  
Nhat Nguyen Tran ◽  
Thi Diem Phuc Huynh ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
Monique N’Diaye ◽  
Boubacar Fodé Keita ◽  
Fodé Danfakha ◽  
Fili Keita ◽  
Gérald Keita ◽  

Abstract Background To monitor the prevalence of schistosomiasis in school-aged children (SAC), the National Bilharzia Control Program (PNLB) was set up by the Senegalese authorities; however, geographically isolated Bedik ethnic groups that did not benefit from this program were found to be heavily infected with Schistosoma mansoni. This observation led us to implement a new schistosomiasis control program in 2008 under the aegis of the non-governmental organization “Le Kaïcedrat” and in partnership with the PNLB/WHO to monitor the prevalence of schistosomiasis in this area. In the village of Assoni, where 100% of SAC were infected, analysis of the stools of pre-school-aged children (PSAC) showed that they were massively infected, so we decided to focus our program on them. Methods From 2008 to 2020, we (i) monitored the prevalence of S. mansoni in PSAC in Assoni using double-stool smear preparation, (ii) treated the infected PSAC with a standard dose of praziquantel 40 mg/kg, (iii) ran educational campaigns each year in the village, and (iv) built latrines to improve sanitation and reduce schistosomiasis transmission. Linear regression was used to examine the trend in the annual schistosomiasis prevalence and a two-sided of Chi-squared test was used to compare prevalence between the different age groups of PSAC. Results We observed an extremely high prevalence of schistosomiasis (78%) in PSAC before implementation of the program in 2008. Contamination occurred in very young children, as 64.3% of children under 2 years old were infected. Moreover, prevalence increased with age and reached 96.8% in children 4 to < 6 years old. Our annual interventions in Assoni Village raised awareness among villagers that water bodies were areas of significant infestation, allowed the building of 88 latrines and led to a decrease in prevalence in PSAC as only 11% of these children were infected in 2020. Conclusion Our study allowed Assoni to be the first village in Senegal to treat PSAC since 2014, but only on an individual basis. It also shows that schistosomiasis is difficult to eradicate and that multi-sectorial actions are required to keep its prevalence at a low level. Graphic abstract

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 11-17
Yasinta Tiara Amelia ◽  
Evi Hanizar ◽  
Dwi Nur Rikhma Sari

The nutrients such as protein and vitamin are proven to improve the sperm quality. One nutrient rich fruit is avocado round green variety, which contains vitamins A, C and E higher than other varieties. This study aimed to determine the effect of consuming avocado on the mice sperm quality. This experimental study was using a Completely Randomized Design with four treatments, each with eight replications. Avocado dosage treatments were control, 75 % w/v, 100% w/v, and 133% w/v , with the number of mice were 32 age four weeks. Avocado was given three times a day, each 0.5 mL for six weeks besides the main food. The observed response was the sperm quality including number, motility and morphology. Sperm was taken from the epididymis after the mice were killed by cervical dislocation method. Sperm was made a suspension using 0.9% NaCl solution and a smear preparation to observe the sperm morphology while staining with basic stain crystal violet. The sperm quality was observed by Neubauer's counting rooms through a multimedia microscope. Data was analyzed using Kurskal Wallis test for the sperm number and Anova test for motility and morphological responses. The result showed that avocado had a significant influence for reproductive health, particularly for increasing spermatozoa quality, including concentration, motility and morphology of sperm. The higher dose of avocado given the higher quantity and quality of sperm resulted.

2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 151-158
Budi Santosa ◽  
Herlisa Anggraini ◽  
Ika Dyah Mawarni ◽  
Niza Muliatun ◽  
Ardiansyah Nugroho ◽  

Erythrocyte index can form erythrocyte morphology in the peripheral blood smear preparation. Lead exposure in Tambaklorok exceeds the threshold that affects anemia. The purpose of this study was to determine the erythrocyte index confirmation with erythrocyte morphology in the peripheral blood smear preparation. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2month in Tambaklorok Semarang residents and 104 samples were taken using the purposive technique. Erythrocyte index was measured using the hematological analyzer and erythrocyte morphology in the peripheral blood smear preparation using Giemsa painting. Erythrocyte index confirmation with the peripheral blood smear preparation was analyzed using the Gamma statistical relationship test. The results showed that the erythrocyte index value was mostly in the normal category, i.e., MCH 68 (64.4%), MCHC 61 (58.6%) and MCH 58 (56%) and below normal category were MCH 45 (42.95%), MCHC 41 (39.4%), and MCV 36 (34.3%). Erythrocyte morphology was mostly hypochromic, namely 46 (44.23%), normochrome 40 (38.46%), and hyperchrome 18 (17.3%). Relationship of MCH with erythrocyte color p-value 0.037 with size p-value 0.038. Conclusion of erythrocyte index confirmation, especially MCH with the peripheral blood smear preparation, there was a match on the color and size of erythrocytes, while the MCV and MCHC values had no significant relationship.

2020 ◽  
Priscilla A. Riet ◽  
Rutger Quispel ◽  
Djuna L. Cahen ◽  
Nicole S. Erler ◽  
Mieke C. Snijders‐Kruisbergen ◽  

2020 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Akili K. Kalinga ◽  
Saidi Mgata ◽  
Reginald A. Kavishe ◽  
Lucas Mahikwano ◽  
Lucky Temu ◽  

Abstract Objective Good quality microscopy is critical for accurate detection and confirmation of malaria parasite infections. Microscopy relies on the skills of technicians to prepare and read slides, high quality reagents, and a good program of internal and external quality control (EQA), which are lacking in most malaria endemic settings. This study was undertaken between January 2016 and December 2018 to pilot an EQA of microscopy for improved diagnosis of malaria and patient care in Tanzanian Military health facilities. Results Of all blood smears crosschecked (n = 4000) at baseline, only 38.5% were incorrectly diagnosed by laboratory staff with false positive and negative rates of 46.7% and 16.4%, respectively. During the implementation of EQA, false positive and negative results decreased due to increased quality index of slide preparation and reading through supportive supervision, and retraining of laboratory personnel. There was a gradual increase of quarterly and annual total quality index for all laboratories, from 60% in 2016 to 78% in 2017 and 90% in 2018. The mean proficiency testing performance scores also increased from 75% in 2016 to 82% in 2017 and to 90% in 2018. Poor blood smear preparation and staining contributed to high false positive and negative rates while EQA helped in improvement of diagnostics.

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