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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Giulia Schilardi ◽  
Sonja Kleinlogel

Bipolar cells have become successful targets for optogenetic gene therapies that restore vision after photoreceptor degeneration. However, degeneration was shown to cause changes in neuronal connectivity and protein expression, which may impact the quality of synthetically restored signaling. Further, the expression of an optogenetic protein may alter passive membrane properties of bipolar cells affecting signal propagation. We here investigated the passive membrane properties of rod bipolar cells in three different systems, the healthy retina, the degenerated retina, and the degenerated retina expressing the optogenetic actuator Opto-mGluR6. We found that, based on the shape of their current-voltage relations, rod bipolar cells in healthy and degenerated retinas form two clear functional groups (type 1 and type 2 cells). Depolarizing the membrane potential changed recorded current-voltage curves from type 1 to type 2, confirming a single cell identity with two functional states. Expression of Opto-mGluR6 did not alter the passive properties of the rod bipolar cell. With progressing degeneration, dominant outward rectifying currents recorded in type 2 rod bipolar cells decreased significantly. We demonstrate that this is caused by a downregulation of BK channel expression in the degenerated retina. Since this BK conductance will normally recover the membrane potential after RBCs are excited by open TRPM1 channels, a loss in BK will decrease high-pass filtering at the rod bipolar cell level. A better understanding of the changes of bipolar cell physiology during retinal degeneration may pave the way to optimize future treatment strategies of blindness.

2022 ◽  
Vol 1049 ◽  
pp. 317-324
Abdumalik G. Gaibov ◽  
K.I. Vakhobov ◽  
B.V. Ibragimova ◽  
U.E. Zhuraev ◽  
D.T. Rasulova

The currents of n-p junctions and polarization effects caused by the capture processes of diffusion Si-receivers (detectors) of radiation exposed by ultrasound have been analyzed in this work. It was found that there are local concentrations of impurity atoms with an effective size l>6μm30μm in Si-n-p radiation receivers. They determine the behavior of the signal amplitude in different intervals of electric and temperature fields. It was found that at Е>1500V/cm and T>168K, the efficiency of collecting nonequilibrium charge carriers significantly increases and doublets of spectral α-lines and “humps” disappear at the temperature dependences of the signal amplitude. The main physical processes and mechanisms that determine the appearance of the phenomenon of "polarization" of Si-n-p-detectors were investigated. This phenomenon is caused by the existence of local gold atoms, which arise in the process of manufacturing technology of Si-n-p-receivers and act as effective trapping centers.

Materials ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (2) ◽  
pp. 499
Olaf Dudek ◽  
Wojciech Klein ◽  
Damian Gąsiorek ◽  
Mariusz Pawlak

3D printing of a composite structure with shape memory materials requires a special approach to the subject, at the stage of the design and printing process. This paper presents the design steps during the development of a 3D-printed composite structure with shape memory material. The connection points between the SMA fibers and the printer filament are developed in the MATLAB environment. Finite element method is used to simulate the shortening of the shape memory material under the influence of temperature and its effect on the printed polymer material is presented. In the MATLAB environment, evolutionary algorithms were used to determine the shape of the SMA fiber alignment. This work demonstrates the use of shape memory effect in 3D printed smart composite structures, where the component takes a predetermined shape. The structure obtained as a result of such printing changes with the heat generated by the current voltage, making it the desired fourth dimension.

Technologies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 6
Valeri Mladenov ◽  
Stoyan Kirilov

In this paper, an improved and simplified modification of a tantalum oxide memristor model is presented. The proposed model is applied and analyzed in hybrid and passive memory crossbars in LTSPICE environment and is based on the standard Ta2O5 memristor model proposed by Hewlett–Packard. The discussed modified model has several main enhancements—inclusion of a simplified window function, improvement of its effectiveness by the use of a simple expression for the i–v relationship, and replacement of the classical Heaviside step function with a differentiable and flat step-like function. The optimal values of coefficients of the tantalum oxide memristor model are derived by comparison of experimental current–voltage relationships and by using a procedure for parameter estimation. A simplified LTSPICE library model, correspondent to the analyzed tantalum oxide memristor, is created in accordance with the considered mathematical model. The improved and altered Ta2O5 memristor model is tested and simulated in hybrid and passive memory crossbars for a state near to a hard-switching operation. After a comparison of several of the best existing memristor models, the main pros of the proposed memristor model are highlighted—its improved implementation, better operating rate, and good switching properties.

Micromachines ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 98
Eugeny Ryndin ◽  
Natalia Andreeva ◽  
Victor Luchinin

The article presents the results of the development and study of a combined circuitry (compact) model of thin metal oxide films based memristive elements, which makes it possible to simulate both bipolar switching processes and multilevel tuning of the memristor conductivity taking into account the statistical variability of parameters for both device-to-device and cycle-to-cycle switching. The equivalent circuit of the memristive element and the equation system of the proposed model are considered. The software implementation of the model in the MATLAB has been made. The results of modeling static current-voltage characteristics and transient processes during bipolar switching and multilevel turning of the conductivity of memristive elements are obtained. A good agreement between the simulation results and the measured current-voltage characteristics of memristors based on TiOx films (30 nm) and bilayer TiO2/Al2O3 structures (60 nm/5 nm) is demonstrated.

2022 ◽  
Tasaul Sk ◽  
Doyel Rakshit ◽  
Ajay Kumar Ghosh

Abstract Nonlinear current-voltage (IV) characteristics of Bi-2212 observed in the presence of the nonmagnetic impurity have been explained incorporating the idea of Berezinskii-Kosterlitz - Thouless (BKT). An exponent (η) is extracted as a function of temperature (T) for several Bi2-xSr2 CaCu2-x ZnxO8+δ (Bi-2212) superconducting samples. Within the framework of the Ambegaokar-Halperin-Nelson-Siggia (AHNS) theory we have extracted the superfluid phase stiffness (SPS) as a function of T. A scaling between the SPS and critical temperature is observed. Strong suppression by the nonmagnetic impurity has been explained using the idea of localized phase fluctuations in the superconducting planes.

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-19
Yatindra Kumar Ramgolam ◽  
Heman Shamachurn ◽  
Jonathan Yannick Coret

Abstract The photovoltaics (PV) industry is booming at an impressive rate. Knowledge of the outdoor perfor-mance of different PV technologies under different climatic conditions is becoming increasingly im-portant for all stakeholders. The aim of this research was to perform the outdoor characterisation of three PV technologies in a tropical climate and evaluate their performances with the aid of a set of key performance indicators. An innovative energy autonomous outdoor test facility has been used to measure the weather conditions and the IV curves of mono-Si, poly-Si and CIGS PV modules. Each IV curve was sampled within less than a second, for every 10 minutes, between sunrise and sunset for a whole year, representing a data set of around 28,000 IV curves of 240 points each. The variations of current, voltage and power were thoroughly studied for changes in temperature and irradiance. This paper reports the variations of temperature coefficients of current, voltage and power with the inten-sity of light. While PV module documentation only present the temperature coefficients of the short circuit current and open circuit voltage at Standard Test Conditions, this paper additionally provides highly valuable information to PV system designers on the variation of these coefficients in the field. The research is also the first to report the variations of the fill factor with temperature and irradi-ance. In general, the wafer technologies were found to have a better performance than the thin film technology. Moreover, the open-circuit temperature coefficient was found to improve for higher irra-diances only for the wafer technologies, while that for the thin-film technology experienced a degrada-tion. The temperature coefficient of current for the mono-Si module was found to be positive at low irradiance levels, but negative at higher irradiance levels.

Yukinori Morita ◽  
Hiroyuki OTA ◽  

Abstract Carrier transport properties of ferroelectric Hf0.5Zr0.5O2 (HZO) thin films have been investigated on metal-ferroelectric-metal (MFM) capacitor in the first current flow of ferroelectric poling treatment. In current–voltage (I–V) measurement of MFM capacitor, a kink or discontinuity point of derivative in I–V characteristic appears, and after the cyclic voltage sweep this kink disappears. This phenomenon is different from the ferroelectric instabilities after several thousand or million voltage cycle applies reported as the wake-up and fatigue. From the analysis using Poole-Frenkel plot of I–V characteristics, it is suggested that irreversible trap generation by electric field apply occurs in poling treatment.

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