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Biology ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 144
Hun-Young Park ◽  
Jeong-Weon Kim ◽  
Sang-Seok Nam

We compared the effects of metabolic, cardiac, and hemorheological responses to submaximal exercise under light hypoxia (LH) and moderate hypoxia (MH) versus normoxia (N). Ten healthy men (aged 21.3 ± 1.0 years) completed 30 min submaximal exercise corresponding to 60% maximal oxygen uptake at normoxia on a cycle ergometer under normoxia (760 mmHg), light hypoxia (596 mmHg, simulated 2000 m altitude), and moderate hypoxia (526 mmHg, simulated 3000 m altitude) after a 30 min exposure in the respective environments on different days, in a random order. Metabolic parameters (oxygen saturation (SPO2), minute ventilation, oxygen uptake, carbon dioxide excretion, respiratory exchange ratio, and blood lactate), cardiac function (heart rate (HR), stroke volume, cardiac output, and ejection fraction), and hemorheological properties (erythrocyte deformability and aggregation) were measured at rest and 5, 10, 15, and 30 min after exercise. SPO2 significantly reduced as hypoxia became more severe (MH > LH > N), and blood lactate was significantly higher in the MH than in the LH and N groups. HR significantly increased in the MH and LH groups compared to the N group. There was no significant difference in hemorheological properties, including erythrocyte deformability and aggregation. Thus, submaximal exercise under light/moderate hypoxia induced greater metabolic and cardiac responses but did not affect hemorheological properties.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262245
Diogo Coutinho ◽  
Bruno Gonçalves ◽  
Hugo Folgado ◽  
Bruno Travassos ◽  
Sara Santos ◽  

This study explored how manipulating the colour of training vests affects footballers’ individual and collective performance during a Gk+6vs6+Gk medium-sided game. A total of 21 under-17 years old players were involved in three experimental conditions in a random order for a total of four days: i) CONTROL, two teams using two different colour vests; ii) SAME, both teams wearing blue vests; iii) MIXED, all 6 players per team wore different colour vests. Players’ positional data was used to compute time-motion and tactical-related variables, while video analysis was used to collect technical variables. Further, these variables were synchronized with spatiotemporal data allowing to capture ball-related actions in a horizontal 2D plan. All variables were analysed from the offensive and defensive perspective. From the offensive perspective, players performed more and further shots to goal during the CONTROL than in SAME and MIXED (small effects) conditions, with a decreased distance to the nearest defender (small effects). While defending, results revealed lower distance to the nearest teammate (small effects) in the CONTROL than in the SAME and MIXED conditions, and higher team longitudinal synchronization (small effects). In addition, the CONTROL showed in general lower values of team width while defending than in the other 2 conditions. Overall, coaches may use the CONTROL condition to emphasize offensive performance and defensive behaviour over the longitudinal direction with increased physical demands. In turn, coaches may use the manipulation of players vests to emphasize defensive performance, as players seem to behave more cohesively under such scenarios.

Nikita Gupta ◽  
Hannah White ◽  
Skylar Trott ◽  
Jeffrey H Spiegel

Abstract Background Human interaction begins with the visual evaluation of others, and this often centers on the face. Objective measurement of this evaluation gives clues to social perception. Objectives The objective was to use eye-tracking technology to evaluate if there are scanpath differences when observers view faces of men, women, and transgender women pre- and post-facial feminization surgery (FFS) including when assigning tasks assessing femininity, attractiveness, and likability. Methods Undergraduate psychology students were prospectively recruited as observers at a single institution. Using eye-tracking technology, they were presented frontal images of prototypical male, prototypical female, and pre- and post-FFS face photos in a random order and then with prompting to assess femininity, attractiveness, and likability. Results Twenty-seven observers performed the tasks. Participants focused their attention more on the central triangle of post-operative and prototypical female images and forehead of pre-operative and prototypical male images. Higher femininity ratings were associated with longer proportional fixations to the central triangle and lower proportional fixations to the forehead. Conclusions This preliminary study implies the scanpath for viewing a post-FFS face is closer to that for viewing a prototypical female than a prototypical male based on differences viewing the forehead and brow versus the central triangle.

Animals ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 108
Kirsten D. Gillette ◽  
Erin M. Phillips ◽  
Daniel D. Dilks ◽  
Gregory S. Berns

Previous research to localize face areas in dogs’ brains has generally relied on static images or videos. However, most dogs do not naturally engage with two-dimensional images, raising the question of whether dogs perceive such images as representations of real faces and objects. To measure the equivalency of live and two-dimensional stimuli in the dog’s brain, during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) we presented dogs and humans with live-action stimuli (actors and objects) as well as videos of the same actors and objects. The dogs (n = 7) and humans (n = 5) were presented with 20 s blocks of faces and objects in random order. In dogs, we found significant areas of increased activation in the putative dog face area, and in humans, we found significant areas of increased activation in the fusiform face area to both live and video stimuli. In both dogs and humans, we found areas of significant activation in the posterior superior temporal sulcus (ectosylvian fissure in dogs) and the lateral occipital complex (entolateral gyrus in dogs) to both live and video stimuli. Of these regions of interest, only the area along the ectosylvian fissure in dogs showed significantly more activation to live faces than to video faces, whereas, in humans, both the fusiform face area and posterior superior temporal sulcus responded significantly more to live conditions than video conditions. However, using the video conditions alone, we were able to localize all regions of interest in both dogs and humans. Therefore, videos can be used to localize these regions of interest, though live conditions may be more salient.

2022 ◽  
Matthieu Gallou-Guyot ◽  
Anaick Perrochon ◽  
Romain Marie ◽  
Maxence Bourgeois ◽  
Stephane Mandigout

UNSTRUCTURED The physical and cognitive loads during exergaming may differ from more conventional cognitive-motor dual-task trainings. The aim of this pilot transversal study was to compare exercise intensity during exergame, cognitive-motor dual-task and single-task training sessions. We recruited healthy young adults who carried out one session of each t type of training: exergaming, cognitive-motor dual-tasking and single-tasking. We used a custom-made exergame as support. The sessions lasted 30 minutes, were spaced at least 24 hours, and took place in random order for each group of 4 participants. We used heart rates to assess exercise intensity, and the modified Borg scale to assess their perception of intensity. Sixteen healthy young participants carried out all sessions. There was no difference between the different types of training in mean heart rates (p = 0.3), peak heart rates (p = 0.5) or Borg scale scores (p = 0.4). Our custom-made exergames measured and perceived physical load did not differ between cognitive-motor dual-task and single-task training. As a result, our exergame can be considered as intense as more traditional physical training. Future studies should be conducted in seniors with or without cognitive impairments and should incorporate an assessment of cognitive performance.

Asst. Prof. Krupali Rana

Abstract: Patients leave data in random order across different organizations loose simple access to historical data as they lose contact from a developer, as the developer, not the client, often retains first general ship to overcome this problem, they use leveraging block chain technology to create a revolutionary decentralised record management system for emrs to overcome this problem. Keywords: blockchain, medical record, IPFS, EMRS, secure, cryptography

2021 ◽  
Gavin Bidelman ◽  
Jared Carter

Spoken language comprehension requires listeners map continuous features of the speech signal to discrete category labels. Categories are however malleable to surrounding context; listeners’ percept can dynamically shift depending on the sequencing of adjacent stimuli resulting in a warping of the heard phonetic category (i.e., hysteresis). Here, we investigated whether such perceptual nonlinearities—which amplify categorical hearing—might further aid speech processing in noise-degraded listening scenarios. We measured continuous dynamics in perception and category judgments of an acoustic-phonetic vowel gradient via mouse tracking. Tokens were presented in serial vs. random orders to induce more/less perceptual warping while listeners categorized continua in clean and noise conditions. Listeners’ responses were faster and their mouse trajectories closer to the ultimate behavioral selection (marked visually on the screen) in serial vs. random order, suggesting increased perceptual attraction to category exemplars. Interestingly, order effects emerged earlier and persisted later in the trial time course when categorizing speech in noise. These data describe a new functional benefit of perceptual nonlinearities to speech perception yet undocumented: warping strengthens the behavioral attraction to relevant speech categories while simultaneously assisting perception in degraded acoustic environments.

2021 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Jin-Bo Sun ◽  
Chen Cheng ◽  
Qian-Qian Tian ◽  
Hang Yuan ◽  
Xue-Juan Yang ◽  

Working memory (WM) is one of the core components of higher cognitive functions. There exists debate regarding the extent to which current techniques can enhance human WM capacity. Here, we examined the WM modulation effects of a previously less studied technique, transcutaneous auricular vagus nerve stimulation (taVNS). In experiment 1, a within-subject study, we aimed to investigate whether and which stimulation protocols of taVNS can modulate spatial WM performance in healthy adults. Forty-eight participants performed baseline spatial n-back tasks (1, 3-back) and then received online taVNS, offline taVNS, or sham stimulation before or during (online group) the posttest of spatial n-back tasks in random order. Results showed that offline taVNS could significantly increase hits in spatial 3-back task, whereas no effect was found in online taVNS or sham group. No significant taVNS effects were found on correct rejections or reaction time of accurate trials (aRT) in both online and offline protocols. To replicate the results found in experiment 1 and further investigate the generalization effect of offline taVNS, we carried out experiment 2. Sixty participants were recruited and received offline taVNS or offline earlobe stimulation in random order between baseline and posttests of behavioral tests (spatial/digit 3-back tasks). Results replicated the findings; offline taVNS could improve hits but not correct rejections or aRT in spatial WM performance, which were found in experiment 1. However, there were no significant stimulation effects on digit 3-back task. Overall, the findings suggest that offline taVNS has potential on modulating WM performance.

Thomas E. Kozlovich ◽  
Stephen C. Jones ◽  
Nina R. Kieves

Abstract OBJECTIVE To determine whether use of a protective cover would affect temporospatial gait or ground reaction force (GRF) measurements obtained from dogs walking on a validated pressure-sensitive walkway (PSW). ANIMALS 5 healthy dogs. PROCEDURES In a crossover study design, all dogs were walked across a calibrated PSW with and without a protective cover in place in random order. Temporospatial gait data and GRFs obtained with and without the cover in place were compared. RESULTS No significant differences were identified in temporospatial gait measurements obtained with versus without the cover in place. The bias was low for all variables, and the 95% limits of agreement included 0. In contrast, significant differences were found between measurements obtained with versus without the cover in place for most GRFs, with measurements obtained with the cover in place significantly lower than those obtained without a cover. CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results suggested that for dogs walking over a PSW, GRFs, but not temporospatial gait variables, would be significantly lower if a protective cover was placed over the walkway, compared with values obtained without a cover in place.

José Correa ◽  
Paul Dütting ◽  
Felix Fischer ◽  
Kevin Schewior

A central object of study in optimal stopping theory is the single-choice prophet inequality for independent and identically distributed random variables: given a sequence of random variables [Formula: see text] drawn independently from the same distribution, the goal is to choose a stopping time τ such that for the maximum value of α and for all distributions, [Formula: see text]. What makes this problem challenging is that the decision whether [Formula: see text] may only depend on the values of the random variables [Formula: see text] and on the distribution F. For a long time, the best known bound for the problem had been [Formula: see text], but recently a tight bound of [Formula: see text] was obtained. The case where F is unknown, such that the decision whether [Formula: see text] may depend only on the values of the random variables [Formula: see text], is equally well motivated but has received much less attention. A straightforward guarantee for this case of [Formula: see text] can be derived from the well-known optimal solution to the secretary problem, where an arbitrary set of values arrive in random order and the goal is to maximize the probability of selecting the largest value. We show that this bound is in fact tight. We then investigate the case where the stopping time may additionally depend on a limited number of samples from F, and we show that, even with o(n) samples, [Formula: see text]. On the other hand, n samples allow for a significant improvement, whereas [Formula: see text] samples are equivalent to knowledge of the distribution: specifically, with n samples, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], and with [Formula: see text] samples, [Formula: see text] for any [Formula: see text].

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