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2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Simon Newman

'Freedom Seekers: Escaping from Slavery in Restoration London' reveals the hidden stories of enslaved and bound people who attempted to escape from captivity in England’s capital. In 1655 White Londoners began advertising in the English-speaking world’s first newspapers for enslaved people who had escaped. Based on the advertisements placed in these newspapers by masters and enslavers offering rewards for so-called runaways, this book brings to light for the first time the history of slavery in England as revealed in the stories of resistance by enslaved workers. Featuring a series of case-studies of individual "freedom-seekers", this book explores the nature and significance of escape attempts as well as detailing the likely routes and networks they would take to gain their freedom. The book demonstrates that not only were enslaved people present in Restoration London but that White Londoners of this era were intimately involved in the construction of the system of racial slavery, a process that traditionally has been regarded as happening in the colonies rather than the British Isles. An unmissable and important book that seeks to delve into Britain’s colonial past.


2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 001-012
Author(s):  
Carlos Henrique Marchiori

Simuliidae belong to the order Diptera, suborder Nematocera, Infraorder Culicomorpha, Superfamily Chironomoidea, and Family Simuliidae. They are known as “borrachudo” or “pium” in Brazil and as “black flies” in English-speaking countries. This study objective to report the characteristics of the Family Simuliidae. The research was carried out in studies related to quantitative aspects of the Family, Subfamily and Species (taxonomic groups) and conceptual aspects such as: biology, geographical distribution, species, life cycle, damage, economic importance, medicinal importance, biological aspects, and reproduction. A literature search was carried out containing articles published from 1950 to 2021. The mini-review was prepared in Goiânia, Goiás, from September to October 2021, through the Portal of Scientific Journals in Health Sciences, Pubmed, Online Scientific Library (Scielo), internet, ResearchGate, Academia.edu, Frontiers, Biological Abstract, Publons, Qeios, Dialnet, World, Wide Science, Springer, RefSeek, Microsoft Academic, Science, ERIC, Science Research.com, SEEK education, Periodicals CAPES, Google Academic, Bioline International and VADLO.


2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 45-61
Author(s):  
Budi Waluyo ◽  
Rahmah Bakoko

Recently, Willingness to Communicate (WTC) has been explored and proposed to be one of the key concepts for identifying when one decides to initiate communication in the target language. The attention, nonetheless, has been concentrated on how WTC interacts with other learners’ variables. This study, on the other hand, intends to offer empirical evidence on the direct roles of affective variables (self-confidence, anxiety, motivation, and grit) and WTC variables (WTC inside the classroom, WTC outside the classroom, and WTC in a digital setting) in Thai students’ English-speaking performance. The data were obtained from 35 undergraduate students (17.1% males; 82.9% females) using a survey questionnaire. Then, a speaking test was taken from an English Communication Skills course and was analysed using correlation and hierarchical regression. The results disclosed positive correlations among self-confidence, motivation, grit, WTC in a digital setting, WTC inside the classroom, WTC outside the classroom, and speaking performance, and negative correlations among self-confidence, anxiety, and grit. However, motivation was the only significant predictor of speaking performance. The findings offer some implications for English teachers in improving students’ English-speaking performance. 


2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (2) ◽  
pp. 255-264
Author(s):  
Ambalegin Ambalegin ◽  
Tomi Arianto ◽  
Nurma Dhona Handayani ◽  
Zia Hisni Mubarak

Batam is the third most visited city of foreign tourists due to the strategic location that closes to Singapore and Malaysia. It becomes a distinct advantage with the number of tourists visiting. In addition to marine tourism and shopping tourism, Batam has agro-tourism in the islands around Batam Island. Cafe Zore in Rempang Island's dragon fruit plantation is often visited by domestic and foreign tourists. Foreign tourists often experience difficulties in communicating with English because the employees could not speak English. It is aimed to develop employees' English skills through methods of community education and training with lecturing, discussion and demonstration techniques. The result of this training was the improvement of the English spoken ability. To sum up this PkM activity is that English communication skills are very important to welcome foreign tourists visiting and support the government to develop tourism in Batam


Author(s):  
Alana Ju ◽  
Sabrina Sedano ◽  
Kathleen Mackin ◽  
Joyce Koh ◽  
Ashwini Lakshmanan ◽  
...  

BACKGROUND: Family-centered rounds (FCR) is the standard of care in inpatient pediatrics. Results of studies have revealed that Spanish-speaking families can experience communication challenges and decreased empowerment on rounds. In our study, we aim to identify variation in FCR practices for Spanish-speaking compared to English-speaking families and factors contributing to these disparities. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational study performed by secondary analysis of a quality improvement initiative conducted at a quaternary children’s hospital. Data were collected from June 2019 to March 2020 by using observational audits. Encounters were analyzed to compare key elements of FCR (including rounds location, elicitation of family questions, involvement in discharge planning) for English-speaking and Spanish-speaking families. Multivariable logistic regression was used to compare family involvement in FCR. A sensitivity analysis was conducted to evaluate unmeasured confounding. RESULTS: Rounding encounters included 394 families (261 English-speaking and 133 Spanish-speaking). Fewer Spanish-speaking families were included in the medical team’s discussion on rounds (64.7% vs 76.3%, P = .017), were asked about questions at the start of rounds (44.4% vs 56.3%, P = .025), or were involved in discussion of discharge criteria (72.2% vs 82.8%, P = .018) when compared to English-speaking families. These differences were magnified for resident teams rounding with subspecialists. The finding of decreased family involvement in the discussion on rounds persisted after adjusting for patient age and team type. CONCLUSIONS: Spanish-speaking families were less likely to be involved in FCR compared to English-speaking families. Further investigation is needed to explore the root causes of this practice variation and to develop interventions to address disparities.


2022 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Author(s):  
Viviane Frings-Hessami ◽  
Gillian Oliver

Purpose Records management has been heavily influenced by practice in English-speaking countries but is often seen as a foreign import in non-Anglophone countries. This study aims to investigate how using English terminology or translating records management terminology into French in a Francophone environment impacts on the success of recordkeeping strategies. Design/methodology/approach Semi-structured interviews were conducted with Francophone archivists and records managers in Switzerland to assess their communication strategies and the language used to communicate recordkeeping objectives. Findings The research findings indicate that in a Francophone environment, archivists and records managers who use French terminology are more successful in promoting recordkeeping objectives than those who use English terminology. Given that research was limited to one Swiss canton, more research is needed to test these findings in other Francophone cantons, provinces and countries. Originality/value This study is important for the success of recordkeeping initiatives in non-Anglophone countries. It highlights the need to take into account the local information culture and use terminology with which people are most familiar.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Megan Armstrong ◽  
Jonathan Lun ◽  
Jonathan I Groner ◽  
Rajan K Thakkar ◽  
Renata Fabia ◽  
...  

Importance: Virtual Reality (VR) gaming is considered a safe and effective alternative to standard pain alleviation in the hospital, we advocate for its use during repeated redressing at home. Objective: This study will address the effectiveness and feasibility of the Virtual Reality Pain Alleviation Tool (VR-PAT) that was developed by the research team for repeated at-home burn dressing changes. Design, Setting and Participants: Randomized clinical trial among patients recruited at the Nationwide Childrens Hospital (NCH) outpatient burn clinic between September 2019 and June 2021. We included English-speaking burn patients 5-17 years old requiring daily dressing changes for at least one week after first outpatient dressing change. Interventions: One group played an interactive VR-PAT game during dressing changes, while the other utilized standard distraction techniques available in the home for a week. Both child and caretaker were later asked to assess perceived pain. Those in the intervention group were asked to evaluate convenience and enjoyment of the VR-PAT game. Outcomes: Patients were asked to rate perceived pain on a scale of 1-10, and caregivers were asked to rate observed pain on a scale of 1-10. For the VR-PAT group, patients were also asked to rate various aspects of the VR game on a scale of 1-10 and caregivers were asked questions assessing ease of use. Conclusions: Subjects found the VR-PAT to be a useful distraction during home dressing changes and reported it be easy to implement. In the VR-PAT group, child and caregiver reported pain decreased as the week of dressing changes progressed and was lower than those in the control group after the fourth dressing change. Children playing the VR-PAT reported consistent happiness and fun as the week went on and increased realism and engagement, which means our results were not just due to the novel experience of VR-PAT.


2022 ◽  
Author(s):  
Haneen Saad Al Muabdi

Motivation is one of the crucial aspects of second language acquisition. Students’ motivation can be influenced by their teachers. The present study aims to investigate the impact of the two types of teachers on EFL learners’ motivations to learn English. These are NESTs (Native English-speaking teachers) and NNESTs (native English-speaking teachers). Hence, it examines learners’ attitudes and perceptions towards the two types of teachers. This study employed a mixed method by distributing a questionnaire contains quantitative and qualitative tools. It consists of twenty items of Likert scales and two open-ended questions. The present study subjects are 31 female students at King Abdulaziz University in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. The results of the study demonstrate that learners have a positive attitude toward NESTs and NNESTs. Despite that, the tendency to learn with NNESTs is higher than NESTs. The findings also show that both types of teachers motivate students to learn English. Moreover, it suggests that the methodology and teachers’ personalities are more important than the teachers’ nativeness.


Author(s):  
Sara Jahnke ◽  
Alexander F. Schmidt ◽  
Andrea Klöckner ◽  
Jürgen Hoyer

AbstractThe neurodevelopmental theory of pedohebephilia states that sexual interests in children arise from early neurodevelopmental perturbations, as, for example, evidenced by increased non-right-handedness, more childhood head injuries, and reduced intelligence and height. As corroborating evidence largely rests on samples of convicted men, we conducted online surveys among German-speaking (Study 1, N = 199) and English-speaking men (Study 2, N = 632), specifically targeting community members with pedohebephilic or teleiophilic interests. Although we detected theoretically meaningful sexual interest patterns in an embedded viewing time task, we could not detect expected neurodevelopmental differences between teleiophilic and pedohebephilic men in either of the two studies. Strikingly, pedohebephilic men who reported convictions for sexual offenses emerged as shorter and less intelligent than pedohebephilic men without convictions in Study 2. While elucidating possible third variable confounds, results have to be interpreted cautiously because of the methodological problems inherent to non-matched case control designs.


2022 ◽  
Vol 15 ◽  
Author(s):  
Johanna M. Rimmele ◽  
Pius Kern ◽  
Christina Lubinus ◽  
Klaus Frieler ◽  
David Poeppel ◽  
...  

Musical training enhances auditory-motor cortex coupling, which in turn facilitates music and speech perception. How tightly the temporal processing of music and speech are intertwined is a topic of current research. We investigated the relationship between musical sophistication (Goldsmiths Musical Sophistication index, Gold-MSI) and spontaneous speech-to-speech synchronization behavior as an indirect measure of speech auditory-motor cortex coupling strength. In a group of participants (n = 196), we tested whether the outcome of the spontaneous speech-to-speech synchronization test (SSS-test) can be inferred from self-reported musical sophistication. Participants were classified as high (HIGHs) or low (LOWs) synchronizers according to the SSS-test. HIGHs scored higher than LOWs on all Gold-MSI subscales (General Score, Active Engagement, Musical Perception, Musical Training, Singing Skills), but the Emotional Attachment scale. More specifically, compared to a previously reported German-speaking sample, HIGHs overall scored higher and LOWs lower. Compared to an estimated distribution of the English-speaking general population, our sample overall scored lower, with the scores of LOWs significantly differing from the normal distribution, with scores in the ∼30th percentile. While HIGHs more often reported musical training compared to LOWs, the distribution of training instruments did not vary across groups. Importantly, even after the highly correlated subscores of the Gold-MSI were decorrelated, particularly the subscales Musical Perception and Musical Training allowed to infer the speech-to-speech synchronization behavior. The differential effects of musical perception and training were observed, with training predicting audio-motor synchronization in both groups, but perception only in the HIGHs. Our findings suggest that speech auditory-motor cortex coupling strength can be inferred from training and perceptual aspects of musical sophistication, suggesting shared mechanisms involved in speech and music perception.


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