number of children
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
pp. 318-333
Marfin Lawalata ◽  
Jino Tehusalawane ◽  
Misco Tamaela ◽  
Marlon Stivo Noya van Delzen ◽  
Felecia P Adam

The purpose of this study was to determine the determinants of the factors causing the high Fertility Rate (TFR), rs that affect the number of children born alive. The data used is SKAP data in 2019, with a respondent of women of childbearing age aged 15-49 years. With the model used is binary logistic regression analysis. The results showed that 12 variables had a significant relationship with live births. Child mortality is the most dominant variable that has a significant effect on the number of children born alive, Recommendations that can be given from the results of this study are to increase the supervision of the Health Office related to strengthening institutional capacity through counseling / communication, information, and education through postponement of marriage age and first birth age programs. first age relationship and education about early childhood sex through adolescent reproductive health counseling in order to increase knowledge, attitudes, and behavior of families and communities to create a quality family.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Sayed Manzoor Ahmed Hanifi ◽  
Nujhat Jahan ◽  
Nazia Sultana ◽  
Sharif-Al Hasan ◽  
Ashish Paul ◽  

The Government of Bangladesh imposed a movement control order as a mass quarantine strategy to control the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Adherence to the home quarantine may put children at risk by missing routine vaccination. In this study, we investigated the impact of COVID-19 on child routine immunization in a rural area of Bangladesh and consider the broader implications. Data for this study comes from the Chakaria Health and Demographic Surveillance System (HDSS) of icddr,b with a population of 90,000 people residing in 16,000 households in 49 villages in a rural, coastal area of Southeast Bangladesh. We used an explanatory sequential mixed methods design which involved two phases between March 1, 2020, and May 31, 2020: first, we observed 258 outreach sessions of 86 EPI centers. We calculated the number of Expanded Program on Immunization (EPI) outreach sessions suspended and the number of children who missed their routine vaccination due to the COVID-19. We extrapolated the number of Bangladeshi children who missed their routine vaccination using Chakaria HDSS observations. Secondly, we conducted in-depth interviews to explain the quantitative results. The EPI outreach session (EOS) declined to 74.42% (95% CI 63.97–83.22), 10.45% (95% CI 5.00–18.94), and 3.45% (95% CI 1.00–9.75) from 2019 levels in March, April, and May 2020, respectively. By extrapolation, in Bangladesh, between March and May 2020, 3.2 million children missed their scheduled vaccination compared to 2019. Results from in-depth interviews showed that the unwillingness of villagers to hold EOS and the absenteeism of the vaccinators due to social distancing recommendations and lack of personal safety measures were the main reasons for the discontinuation of the EOS. Resuming EPI outreach sessions and introducing a special catch-up program is essential to prevent future outbreaks and deaths due to vaccine-preventable diseases in Bangladesh and the countries where children missed their routine vaccination due to COVID-19. This health system failure should be considered a factor in all future pandemic preparedness plans.

2022 ◽  
Vol 6 ◽  
Kristiina Tammisalo ◽  
Mirkka Danielsbacka ◽  
Emilia Andersson ◽  
Antti O. Tanskanen

Older adults have recently begun to adopt social media in increasing numbers. Even so, little is known about the factors influencing older adults’ social media adoption. Here, we identify factors that predict the use of social media among older adults (aged 68–73) and compare them to those of their adult children (aged 19–56) using population-based data from Finland. As predictors for social media use, we utilized demographic factors as well as characteristics of the respondents’ social lives. In addition, we test whether social media use in older adults is predicted by the social media use of their adult children. The data used in this study uniquely enable the study of this question because actual parent-child dyads are identifiable. In both generations, women and those with higher education were more likely to use social media. Predictors specific to men of the older generation were being divorced and younger, and predictors specific to women of the older generation were having better health and more frequent contact with friends. A higher number of children predicted use in both men and women in the older generation. As for the younger generation, specific predictors for social media use in women were younger age, divorce, higher number of children, and more frequent contact with friends. For men in the younger generation, there were no significant predictors for social media use besides higher education, which predicted social media use in all groups. Finally, social media use in a parent representing the older generation was predicted by the social media use of their adult children. This study provides novel information on the predictors of the use of social media in two family generations.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 721
Ana-Maria Vutan ◽  
Erwin-Christian Lovasz ◽  
Corina-Maria Gruescu ◽  
Carmen Sticlaru ◽  
Elena Sîrbu ◽  

(1) Background: Scoliosis affects about 3% of the population and the number of children diagnosed with this condition is increasing. Numerous studies have been conducted in recent years to observe the effectiveness of rehabilitation specific exercises for this condition. In the present study we aim to observe if symmetrical exercises activate the back muscles in the same way in the case of children with mild scoliosis and those without postural deviations; (2) Methods: We used the thermal imaging camera, which allows a non-invasive, painless investigation that provides real-time information about muscle activity. The study qualitatively assessed muscle activation during exercises. In this study, 30 children were divided into two groups: 15 children diagnosed with mild scoliosis and 15 children without postural deviations; (3) Results: Acquisition of images after each exercise revealed an imbalance in the functioning of the back muscles in children with scoliosis, with areas of higher temperature after exercise on the convexity side of the scoliotic curve. In the second experiment in which children with scoliosis performed the required exercises under the supervision of a physiotherapist, they showed a symmetrical activation of the back muscles on the right and left side of the back; (4) Conclusions: In children without postural deviations, symmetrical exercises activate the muscles equally on the right and left sides of the back. In the case of children with scoliosis, the symmetrical exercises indicated in the rehabilitation programs should be performed only under the supervision of a physiotherapist to properly activate the back muscles.

2022 ◽  
Vol 99 (12) ◽  
pp. 33-37
E. N. Aleksandrova ◽  
T. I. Morozova ◽  
T. Yu. Salina

Subjects and Methods. Incidence and prevalence of tuberculosis among children and adolescents in Saratov Region were retrospectively analyzed for 2015-2019.Results. The incidence of tuberculosis in children reflects general trends in the epidemic situation over the years in Saratov Region. In this region during 10 years of monitoring, tuberculosis incidence among children decreased 4 times by 2019 and it made 2.3 per 100,000 population, and among adolescents, it decreased 1.6 times (16.3 per 100,000 population). The number of children with post-tuberculosis changes detected for the first time increased 3 times in 2019 versus 2015, and the number of adolescents increased 4.5 times not only due to transition to tuberculosis screening in children aged 8-17 years old by skin test with tuberculosis recombinant allergen but also to the examination of children by computed tomography. The incidence in children followed up as Group IVA in 2019 was 15 times higher than this rate in the overall pediatric population. Analysis of the number of children and adolescents who developed tuberculosis and followed up as Groups IV and VI in 2015-2019 showed that the number of children ill with tuberculosis in Group IV was 3 times higher than the number of children in Group VI.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Lotte Prevo ◽  
Maria Jansen ◽  
Dave Van Kann ◽  
Stef Kremers

The number of children dealing with behavioural problems is increasing. A major challenge in many health-supportive programmes is the recruitment and retention of these children. In the current study, Sport Mix Club (SMC), an approach to enhance socioemotional disorders of 4- to 12-year-old children through sport classes in municipality Vaals, the Netherlands, is used as an illustration. Where many studies faced difficulties getting and keeping children in their interventions, SMC overcame this challenge. Therefore, we decided to explore “What factors contribute to enhanced recruitment and retention procedures among children with behavioural problems in Sport Mix Club?” A qualitative case study design using the analysis of the administrative logbook of the SMC coach and trainees, individual interviews with the SMC coach, trainees (n = 2), school teachers (n = 3) and parents of participating children (n = 9), and four focus group interviews with children (n = 13) were carried out. During the recruitment and retention of SMC, the human psychological need of relatedness seemed to be of crucial value. The fact that the SMC coach: (1) made efforts to become a familiar face for children, parents and community partners beforehand; (2) showed enthusiasm; and (3) placed her focus on having fun as opposed to the children's problems, seemed to be decisive in the process of getting children to participate in SMC and retaining their participation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 81 (1) ◽  
Kashmira Rawjee ◽  
Teboho Seobi ◽  
Aubrey Makgotloe

Intravitreal chemotherapy (IVitC) in the management of retinoblastoma has increased the rate of globe salvage, specifically in patients with recurrent disease and associated vitreous seeds. A significant number of children with retinoblastoma in developing countries present late, resulting in higher intraocular tumour-stage at presentation. Treatment requirements for such tumours usually include intravenous chemotherapy (IVC) and/or intra-arterial chemotherapy (IAC). While IVC has a long usage track record and a good efficacy, it has been reported to be associated with higher recurrence rates in a significant number of patients. Intra-arterial chemotherapy has the advantage of lower recurrence rates but requires personnel with advanced interventional radiology skills and has limited efficacy in treating intravitreal seeds. Intravitreal chemotherapy has gained popularity recently, largely because of its superior efficacy in the management of vitreous seeds, subretinal seeds and recurrent retinal tumour. An 8-month-old male infant initially presented with bilateral retinoblastoma, International Classification System for Intraocular Retinoblastoma (ICRB) Group E in the right eye and Group B on the left eye. The right eye was enucleated and currently has a prosthesis. The left eye had tumours that initially responded to brachytherapy and transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT). Approximately two years later his tumours recurred with vitreous seeds and were successfully managed with the use of cryotherapy and intravitreal chemotherapy. The simplicity of the technique of IVitC and its efficacy in controlling vitreous seeds and recurrent retinal tumours makes this route of regional chemotherapy a viable one in areas with limited expertise and resources such as South Africa.

2022 ◽  
Chenfeng Zhu ◽  
Li Yan ◽  
Chuqing He ◽  
Yang Wang ◽  
Jiahao Wu ◽  

Abstract Background: With the implementation of the two-child policy in China, more couples expressed their desire to have a child. We conducted this study to evaluate the incidence and risk factors of infertility in couples intending to have a first child and second child.Methods: Couples who presented to the pre-pregnancy clinical centers were enrolled from 2013 to 2017. Participants were categorized into “first child intention” and “second child intention” groups based on the number of children they already had. Couples were followed up every three months until pregnancy or 12 months. Data regarding the sociodemographic characteristics, history of reproduction and gynecology, history of male disease, and laboratory and imaging examination results were collected. Odds ratios (ORs) and their corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated and adjusted for potential confounding factors.Results: The overall infertility incidence was 16.95% (369/2177). The infertility incidence of “first child intention” and “second child intention” was 19.30% (355/1839) and 4.14% (14/338). The study showed great differences in infertility risk factors between two groups. Risk factors for “first child intention” infertility included advanced age (>35 years), abnormal body mass index (BMI), longer menstrual durations, endometrial polyps, polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), salpingostomy, and history of mycoplasma. However, in “second child intention” group, clinical risk factor was slightly different, such as leiomyoma, higher age (>40 years).Conclusion: The incidence and risk factors of infertility are significantly different between “first child intention” group and “second child intention” group. Early and targeted intervention for couples in different groups at high risk can help reduce infertility and social burden.

Mia Hakovirta ◽  
Merita Mesiäislehto

Abstract With increasing trends in divorce, separation and multi-partner fertility, more families have become subject to child support policies. This paper explores child support receipt in 21 European countries using 2017–2018 European Union Statistics on Income and Living Conditions data. We investigated: (1) cross-country differences in the prevalence and amount of child support received and (2) the determinants of child support receipt among lone mothers across countries. We found that the proportion of lone-mother families receiving child support ranged from 16 per cent in Luxembourg to 75 per cent in the Czech Republic, with large variations in the amount of child support received. Our results suggested that the socioeconomic characteristics of lone mothers, including marital status, education, employment status, number of children and income, were associated with the likelihood of receiving child support in most countries but these associations varied significantly across countries.

Inbal Golan-Tripto ◽  
Reuven Tsabari ◽  
Elie Picard ◽  
Patrick Stafler ◽  
Keren Armoni Domany ◽  

Background: Since the outbreak of the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, there has been a decline in pediatric emergency department visits. Our aim was to assess the pattern of pediatric foreign body aspiration (FBA) during the first year of the COVID-19, in comparison to the prior years. Methods: In this retrospective multicenter study, we compared the number of children that presented with FBA during the COVID-19 year (March 1st, 2020 to February 28, 2021), to the annual average of the years 2016-2019. We also compared the lockdown periods to the post-lockdown periods and the percentage of missed FBA, proven FBA, and flexible bronchoscopy as the removal procedure. Results: 345 children with FBA from six centers were included, 276 in the pre-COVID-19 years (average 69 per year) and 69 in the COVID-19 year. There was no difference in the prevalence of FBA between the COVID-19 year and any of the prior four years. Examining the lockdown effect, the monthly incidence of FBA dropped from a pre-COVID-19 average of 5.75 cases to 5.1 cases during lockdown periods and increased to 6.3 cases in post-lockdown periods. No difference in the percentage of missed FB or proven FB was observed. There was a significant rise in the usage of flexible bronchoscopy as the removal procedure (Average of 15.4% vs 30.4%, p=0.001) Conclusion: There was no difference in the prevalence of FBA during the COVID-19 year. However, there were fewer cases during lockdown periods, compared to post-lockdown periods, presumably related to better parental supervision.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document