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2022 ◽  
Vol 4 (1) ◽  
pp. 100-126
Virajati Adhazar ◽  
Suhaidi Suhaidi ◽  
Sutiarnoto Sutiarnoto ◽  
Jelly Leviza

Self-defense as an inherent right owned by a country is regulated in Article 51 of the UN Charter and due to the use of Space-Based Missile Interceptor (SBMI) weapons in space, the 1967 outer space treaty must also be guided. Because Article 4 of the 1967 Outer Space Treaty prohibits the use of weapons in space, the legality of using SBMI weapons is questionable. Therefore, this study was conducted to determine the legal provisions, forms of state accountability and the process of prosecuting compensation for countries using these weapons according to international law. The results of the study indicate that the use of SBMI weapons does not conflict with international law, because it is based on Article 103 of the UN Charter which states that if there are provisions in other legal rules that are contrary to the UN Charter, the UN Charter must be guided. So that self-defense actions based on Article 51 of the UN Charter do not violate the law. The party that must be absolutely responsible is the country that started the conflict, because it has violated the rules of international law in Article 2 paragraph (4) of the UN Charter and international humanitarian law. The compensation process is carried out according to the rules of the space liability convention 1972 and if in practice the party who is responsible does not show good faith in providing compensation, then it can be continued by referring to the dispute resolution process in the UN Charter.

2022 ◽  
pp. 213-227
Alexander Orakhelashvili

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 58-66
Aleksandr Kozyukov ◽  
N. Gamzatov ◽  
Sergey Grechanyy ◽  
Konstantin Zolnikov ◽  
I. Strukov ◽  

The analysis of information on the stability of the electronic component base (ECB) in the development of radio-electronic equipment (REE) of spacecraft (spacecraft) is an important and urgent task. The paper considers the main components of the approaches of foreign organizations developing radio space technology to ensure its radiation resistance. The design approaches of Thales Alenia Space, Airbus Defense and Space, and the European Space Agency are presented. The article outlines the main directions for optimizing the procedures for the preliminary selection of ECB, which consist in ensuring the required resistance of REE SC at the ECB level with ensuring the reliability of data on durability, in minimizing the costs of applying resistance enhancement measures (through the use of a promising ECB with increased resistance characteristics), to replace ECB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 43-51
V. Zolnikov ◽  
A. Yagodkin ◽  
V. Antsiferova ◽  
Svetlana Evdokimova ◽  
Tatyana Skvortsova ◽  

The work is devoted to the study of the sensitivity of the electronic component base (ECB) to the effects of heavy charged particles. At the same time, the degree of sensitivity is distinguished depending on the functional group of ECB products to the effects of ionization radiation from outer space and on the design and technological design of ECB products. The paper presents the characteristics and conditions for the use of ECB in the radio-electronic equipment of outer space to ensure minimal sensitivity to the effects of ionization radiation and to the thyristor effect. After the sensitivity analysis of ECB products is carried out, a preliminary selection of ECB is performed, requiring testing. The article discusses the criteria for determining the ECB that requires testing and is possible to use without testing. The methods of increasing the durability of radio-electronic equipment of space equipment and the directions of optimization of the methodology of analysis of ECB lists are determined.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Joseph Ashby ◽  
Samuel Rosset ◽  
E.-F. Markus Henke ◽  
Iain A. Anderson

Soft robots, devices with deformable bodies and powered by soft actuators, may fill a hitherto unexplored niche in outer space. All space-bound payloads are heavily limited in terms of mass and volume, due to the cost of launch and the size of spacecraft. Being constructed from stretchable materials allows many possibilities for compacting soft robots for launch and later deploying into a much larger volume, through folding, rolling, and inflation. This morphability can also be beneficial for adapting to operation in different environments, providing versatility, and robustness. To be truly soft, a robot must be powered by soft actuators. Dielectric elastomer transducers (DETs) offer many advantages as artificial muscles. They are lightweight, have a high work density, and are capable of artificial proprioception. Taking inspiration from nature, in particular the starfish podia, we present here bio-inspired inflatable DET actuators powering low-mass robots capable of performing complex motion that can be compacted to a fraction of their operating size.

2022 ◽  
Jessica West ◽  
Almudena Azcárate Ortega

Space is increasingly critical to modern life on Earth. But there is growing concern that, as it becomes more economically and strategically important, tensions between different space actors are heightening in a manner that could lead to conflict. The accelerating proliferation of counterspace capabilities, as well as the enactment of national policies that deem space an operational or warfighting domain, underlines the very real nature of threats that exist and highlights the importance of keeping space peaceful. To address these challenges, some experts in space security have called for more robust norms of behaviour in outer space. This report explores the role of norms as a tool for outer space governance, as well as their challenges and limitations.

Nutrients ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 194
Hong Tang ◽  
Hope Hui Rising ◽  
Manoranjan Majji ◽  
Robert D. Brown

This scoping review aimed to identify current evidence and gaps in the field of long-term space nutrition. Specifically, the review targeted critical nutritional needs during long-term manned missions in outer space in addition to the essential components of a sustainable space nutrition system for meeting these needs. The search phrase “space food and the survival of astronauts in long-term missions” was used to collect the initial 5432 articles from seven Chinese and seven English databases. From these articles, two independent reviewers screened titles and abstracts to identify 218 articles for full-text reviews based on three themes and 18 keyword combinations as eligibility criteria. The results suggest that it is possible to address short-term adverse environmental factors and nutritional deficiencies by adopting effective dietary measures, selecting the right types of foods and supplements, and engaging in specific sustainable food production and eating practices. However, to support self-sufficiency during long-term space exploration, the most optimal and sustainable space nutrition systems are likely to be supported primarily by fresh food production, natural unprocessed foods as diets, nutrient recycling of food scraps and cultivation systems, and the establishment of closed-loop biospheres or landscape-based space habitats as long-term life support systems.

Life ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 47
Victor R. Alekseev ◽  
Jiang-Shiou Hwang ◽  
Margarita A. Levinskikh

This work is a review of the experiments carried out in the Russian segment of the ISS (inside and outside) from 2005 to 2016 on the effect of the space flight factor on the resting stages of organisms. In outer space, ultraviolet, a wide range of high and low temperatures, cosmic radiation, altered gravity, modified electromagnetic field, vacuum, factors of technical origin, ultrasound, microwave radiation, etc. and their combination determine the damaging effect on living organisms. At the same time, biological dormancy, known in a wide range of bacteria, fungi, animals and plants, allows them to maintain the viability of their dormant stages in extreme conditions for a long time, which possibly allows them to survive during space flight. From 2005 to 2016, the resting stages (propagules) of micro- and multicellular organisms were tested on the ISS to assess their ability to survive after prolonged exposure to the conditions of open space and space flight. Among the more than 40 species studied, about a third were dormant stages of aquatic organisms (eggs of cyprinodont fish, daphnia embryos, resting eggs of fairy shrimps, tadpole shrimps, copepods and ostracods, diapausing larvae of dipterans, as well as resting cysts of algae). The experiments were carried out within the framework of four research programs: (1) inside the ISS with a limited set of investigated species (Akvarium program); (2) outside the station in outer space without exposure to ultraviolet radiation (Biorisk program); (3) under modified space conditions simulating the surface of Mars (Expose program); and (4) in an Earth-based laboratory where single-factor experiments were carried out with neutron radiation, modified magnetic field, microwave radiation and ultrasound. Fundamentally new data were obtained on the stability of the resting stages of aquatic organisms exposed to the factors of the space environment, which modified the idea of the possibility of bringing Earth life forms to other planets with spacecraft and astronauts. It also can be used for creating an extraterrestrial artificial ecosystem and searching for extraterrestrial life.


Problem statement. Humanity is inching closer to the technical possibility of establishing outer space settlements on the Moon. The space club nations have joined their potential or move ahead with their own space exploration efforts to work on outer space projects of Lunar habitats. The new Moon Race has begun with its first stage of architectural design played out on Earth. The Internet resources and research publications in printed journals suggest different approaches to lunar settlement designs, which can be explained by extreme surface conditions and configurations of the Moon, as well as various goals and objectives set by the states seeking to gain a foothold on our nearest neighbor in space. In cooperation with other nations, Ukraine participates in the exploration of the Moon. However, the global expert comunity has not yet come up with clear and unambiguous concepts of the typology of the organizational architecture for lunar settlements. The goal of this paper is to give insight into the typology of objective timeless approaches to the architectural organization of lunar settlements. Conclusions. Colonisation of other planets, as an immediate objective of the humankind, will begin with the exploration of the Moon, where various adaptation methods could be developed relevant to the conditions of other worlds. Nevetherless, there are some common objective factors affecting the settlements of pioneers from Earth. Thus, the need for identifying and systematising an objective typology of approaches to the architectural organization of lunar settlements as a condition for the subsequent colonisation of more distant planets has become important.

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