mosquito repellents
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2022 ◽  
pp. 19-32
Jeffrey Bloomquist ◽  
Shiyao Jiang ◽  
Edmund Norris ◽  
Gary Richoux ◽  
Liu Yang ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 18 ◽  
Rajat Subhra Dutta ◽  
Supriya Sahu ◽  
Bhaskar Mazumder

Abstract: Currently, the research focus has been on finding new alternatives to synthetic mosquito repellents due to their toxicity. Natural products act as a suitable alternative since plant-based mosquito repellents have been used traditionally due to their low toxicity. Essential oils as mosquito repellent have gained importance due to various functional bioactive constituents. Different formulations of essential oils have been studied from time to time to enhance the stability and protection time. However, the underlying mechanism of repellent activity of the bioactive constituents against specific mosquito species remains unexplored. This review focuses on the various sources of essential oil with their bioactive components and their receptor-based mechanism of action for inducing mosquito repellency against different mosquito species. Furthermore, a comparison of the various formulations of essential oil-based mosquito repellents with synthetic repellents has been discussed.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 101-112
Arlina Azka ◽  
Fardhiasih Dwi Astuti

Abstract. The use of household insecticides is an alternative solution to prevent mosquito bites.Most of the household insecticides sold in Indonesia have pyrethroid active ingredients, permethrin,which is available in the aerosol formulation. Inappropriate use of household insecticides can reducemosquito susceptibility. The objectives of this study are to describe the use of household insecticidesand susceptibility of Aedes sp. against permethrin in Sorosutan Yogyakarta. This study used a crosssectionalsurvey design. This study was conducted in December 2018–April 2019 in 354 householdsin Sorosutan which were randomly selected based on proportional sampling. Interviews about thehousehold insecticides were conducted with the owner or resident of the house. The susceptibilitytests used impregnated paper with permethrin 0.75%. The survey results showed that 25.14% ofthe houses use household insecticides. The insecticide used were aerosol, electric mosquito repellents,and mosquito coils containing active ingredients of the pyrethroid group, namely dimefl uthrin,transfl uthrin, prallethrin, cypermethrin, and metofl uthrin. The susceptibility test results showed adecrease in mosquito susceptibility where the population of Aedes sp. in Sorosutan has been resistantagainst permethrin. The continuous use of insecticides with pyrethroid active ingredients can developmosquito resistance against permethrin because all pyrethroids have the same mode of action. Thisstudy concludes that only a small proportion (25,14%) of the households used insecticides with theactive ingredients used mainly in the pyrethroid group (dimefl uthrin, transfl uthrin, prallethrin,cypermethrin, and metofl uthrin) and the population of Aedes sp. in Sorosutan has been resistant topermethrin.

S. Valarmathi ◽  
M. Senthil Kumar ◽  
. Chithra ◽  
. Coralinanisha ◽  
Antony nelson Prabhu ◽  

The mosquito repellent formulations that are available on the market are causing irritations like coughing, sneezing, allergic reactions and respiratory disorders to human.The mosquito repellents available in the market are in various forms like colis,mats,sprays and fast cards. So the present study was carried out to formulate mosquito repellent incense sticks using herbals like Vitex negundo, Neem, Holy basil, and Garlic. The poly herbal mosquito repellent formulation are made by hand rolling method.The solid formulation containing binders and additives are rolled in the form of incense sticks and dried for 24 hrs. After drying its evaluated and compared with the market formulation. The prepared herbal mosquito incense sticks are potent, safe with more duration of time and less cost.

ACS Omega ◽  
2021 ◽  
Akshay S. Kulkarni ◽  
Remya Ramesh ◽  
Safal Walia ◽  
Shahebaz I. Sayyad ◽  
Ganesh B. Gathalkar ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (33) ◽  
pp. 2692-2696
Usha Rani S. Padmanabha ◽  
Lavanya Rajesh ◽  
Puneeth Nagarajaiah ◽  
Maheswaran Rajappa

BACKGROUND Indoor air pollution is responsible for more than 1.5 million deaths and 2.7 % of the global burden of disease as per WHO report. Globally, more than three billion people depend on solid fuels including biomass and coal. Nearly 4 million people die prematurely from illnesses attributed to household air pollution from inefficient cooking practices using polluting stoves paired with solid fuels and kerosene. As a customary involvement in cooking; women are obliged to breathe the air polluted with biomass fuels and tend to experience the largest exposures and health burdens. Hence this study was done to assess the determinants of indoor air pollution (IAP) and its health impact among women residing in rural areas of Bengaluru. METHODS A community based cross sectional study was conducted among household women residing in rural population of Bengaluru over a period of 4 months. Based on prevalence rate of sources for indoor air pollution being 49 % from the earlier studies the estimated sample was 500. Household women were interviewed by simple random sampling technique. RESULTS The mean age of the participants was 46.9 + 15yrs. where 42.4 % belonged to 40 - 59 yrs. of age group. In majority of households, 84.4 % used LPG as a cooking fuel. Type of fuel, second-hand smoking, smoke from the neighbourhood and use of mosquito repellents were found to be sources while poor housekeeping, inadequate ventilation, and lack of smoke outlet in kitchen were contributing factors for IAP. Irritation in eyes, cough, difficulty in breathing, running nose and chronic respiratory diseases were the perceived symptoms due to IAP. CONCLUSIONS Majority of households in the current study were exposed to IAP due to passive smoking, smoke from the neighbourhood and use of mosquito repellents while improper ventilation, absence of smoke outlet and humid conditions accentuated it. Community awareness program and cost effective interventions is the need of the hour. KEY WORDS Indoor Air Pollution, Rural Population, Women's Health

Yanelza Supranelfy ◽  
Reni Oktarina

Malaria is a disease caused by a parasite (protozoa) of the genus plasmodium, transmitted through the Anopheles mosquito's bite Prevention by vector control and preventing mosquito bites to humans needs to be carried out to break the chain of transmission. This study aims to find out at the description of malaria prevention conducted by community in South Sumatera. This is descriptive research with a cross-sectional approach using data from the results of the Basic Health Research (Riskesdas) 2018. The research sample were 33,566 people spread in 17 districts/cities in South Sumatera. The respondents were dominant in the 36-45 years age group, male, had low education, and had a job as a farmer. The results showed that the most widely used prevention of mosquito bites in South Sumatra was using non-insecticide mosquito nets and mosquito repellents. Meanwhile, insecticide-treated mosquito nets that are often used are generally more than three years. The respondents who live in areas that have obtained a malaria elimination certificate and respondents with low levels of education tend to sleep using insecticide-treated mosquito nets.

2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-7
Olive Aidoo ◽  
Noble Kuntworbe ◽  
Fredrick William Akuffo Owusu ◽  
Deryl Nii Okantey Kuevi

As one of the killer diseases in the world, malaria contributes to child mortality and global death annually. As a result, many reactive mechanisms have evolved to control and repel mosquitoes. The use of synthetic mosquito repellents with N,N-Diethyl-meta-toluamide (DEET) is one of the popular interventions despite its dermatological limitations such as skin irritations. Ethnobotanical reviews have identified that the adoption of natural repellents promises high repellence on mosquitoes with minimal side effects compared with synthetic ones. However, this has received little attention in modern pharmaceutical literature. This research is focused on the formulation of a natural mosquito repellent from the oil extracted from Azadirachta indica (A. Juss). The oil cream was formulated in concentrations of 10% v / w , 12.5% v / w , 15% v / w , 17.5% v / w , and 20% v / w using an in vitro evaluation approach. Pharmacopoeia characteristics of the cream such as pH, viscosity, spreadability, and organoleptic properties were carried out to verify acidity, permeation, and flow properties of the formulated cream. The spreadability rate was inversely proportional to the concentration of the cream in terms of oil content falling from 1.24 gm/s to 0.84 gm/s from concentrations 10% v / w to 20% v / w correspondingly. Skin irritation tests, however, indicated traces of irritation at 20% v / w . Repellency properties of the cream revealed a lasting effect on the mosquitoes, although this was dependent on concentration levels. Formulations of 17.5% v / w and 20% v / w neem seed oil cream had an equal repellency effect of 87.5%, whereas the synthetic repellent had a repellency of 75% within a justifiable time frame for all the formulations. This work shows that plant-based mosquito repellents promise a healthier approach in controlling mosquito bites, protecting the skin, and preventing malaria.

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