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2024 ◽  
Vol 84 ◽  
A. S. Abd El-Wahab

Abstract Field survey study was conducted season (2017). Soybeans and weeds were weekly sampled randomly. Thrips adults were identified and counted. Detection of the virus isolate and the natural incidence was determined using; Mechanical transmission, host range, DAS-ELISA, RT-PCR. The natural incidence thrips individuals was detected depending on the SVNV% in thrips individuals and weeds hosts. Ten thrips species were associated with soybean plants in the field. The most abundant species was T. tabaci, average 256.5 average no.of individuals, followed by F. occidentalis (142.5 average no. of individuals), then N. variabilis (86.6/ average no. of individuals). Fourteen thrips species occurred on 5 legumes field crops and 41 weed plant species within soybean field. The highest average number 40.6.of individuals were recorded on Ammi majus. While the lowest one 3.3 average no. of individuals were on Urtica urens. Only 21diagnostic plant species were susceptible to infection with SVNV. G. max and Vigna radiate, were the highest percentage of infection 80% followed by V. unguilata & N. benthamiana, 75%. Egyptian isolate of Soybean vein necrosis virus (SVNV) in this study showed a high degree of similarity and it is closely related to TSWV from Egypt (DQ479968) and TCSV from USA (KY820965) with nucleotide sequence identity of 78%. Four thrips species transmitted SVNV (F. fusca 4.0%, F. schultzei 4.3%, F. tritici 3.3% and N. variabilis 68.0% transmission). Both C. phaseoli and M. sjostedti can acquire the virus but unable to transmit it. The following species; T. tabaci, F. occidentalis, S. dorsallis and T. palmi cannot acquire or transmit SVNV. The incidence of SVNV in the field started by the end of July then increased gradualy from 12.7 to 71.3% by the end of the season. In conclusion, few thrips individuals invaded soybean crops are enough to transmit high rate of SVNV within the crop. Furthermore, several vector species are also abundant on weeds, which are the major sources of soybean viruses transmitted to the crops. This information might be important for control and reduce the incidence of SVNV infection.

2022 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Nathália Coelho Vargas de Almeida ◽  
Jaime Louzada ◽  
Maycon Sebastião Alberto Santos Neves ◽  
Thiago M. Carvalho ◽  
Júlio Castro-Alves ◽  

Abstract Background Malaria control requires local action. Assessing the vector diversity and abundance provides information on the local malariogenic potential or risk of transmission. This study aimed to determine the Anopheles species composition, habitats, seasonal occurrence, and distribution in areas with autochthonous and imported malaria cases in Roraima State. Methods A longitudinal study was conducted from January 2017 to October 2018, sampling larvae and adult mosquitoes in three municipalities of Roraima State: Boa Vista, Pacaraima and São João da Baliza. These areas have different risks of malaria importation. Four to six mosquito larval habitats were selected for larval sampling at each municipality, along with two additional sites for adult mosquito collection. All larval habitats were surveyed every two months using a standardized larval sampling methodology and MosqTent for adult mosquitoes. Results A total of 544 Anopheles larvae and 1488 adult mosquitoes were collected from the three municipalities studied. Although the species abundance differed between municipalities, the larvae of Anopheles albitarsis s.l., Anopheles nuneztovari s.l. and Anopheles triannulatus s.l. were collected from all larval habitats studied while Anopheles darlingi were collected only from Boa Vista and São João da Baliza. Adults of 11 species of the genus Anopheles were collected, and the predominant species in Boa Vista was An. albitarsis (88.2%) followed by An. darlingi (6.9%), while in São João da Baliza, An. darlingi (85.6%) was the most predominant species followed by An. albitarsis s.l. (9.2%). In contrast, the most abundant species in Pacaraima was Anopheles braziliensis (62%), followed by Anopheles peryassui (18%). Overall, the majority of anophelines exhibited greater extradomicile than peridomicile-biting preference. Anopheles darlingi was the only species found indoors. Variability in biting times was observed among species and municipalities. Conclusion This study revealed the composition of anopheline species and habitats in Boa Vista, Pacaraima and São João da Baliza. The species sampled differed in their behaviour with only An. darlingi being found indoors. Anopheles darlingi appeared to be the most important vector in São João da Baliza, an area of autochthonous malaria, and An. albitarsis s.l. and An. braziliensis in areas of low transmission, although there were increasing reports of imported malaria. Understanding the diversity of vector species and their ecology is essential for designing effective vector control strategies for these municipalities.

PLoS ONE ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 17 (1) ◽  
pp. e0262108
Mohammad El Mouzan ◽  
Asaad Assiri ◽  
Ahmed Al Sarkhy ◽  
Mona Alasmi ◽  
Anjum Saeed ◽  

Viruses are common components of the intestinal microbiome, modulating host bacterial metabolism and interacting with the immune system, with a possible role in the pathogenesis of immune-mediated diseases such as celiac disease (CeD). The objective of this study was to characterize the virome profile in children with new-onset CeD. We used metagenomic analysis of viral DNA in mucosal and fecal samples from children with CeD and controls and performed sequencing using the Nextera XT library preparation kit. Abundance log2 fold changes were calculated using differential expression and linear discriminant effect size. Shannon alpha and Bray–Curtis beta diversity were determined. A total of 40 children with CeD and 39 controls were included. We found viral dysbiosis in both fecal and mucosal samples. Examples of significantly more abundant species in fecal samples of children with CeD included Human polyomavirus 2, Enterobacteria phage mEpX1, and Enterobacteria phage mEpX2; whereas less abundant species included Lactococcus phages ul36 and Streptococcus phage Abc2. In mucosal samples however, no species were significantly associated with CeD. Shannon alpha diversity was not significantly different between CeD and non-CeD groups and Bray–Curtis beta diversity showed no significant separation between CeD and non-CeD samples in either mucosal or stool samples, whereas separation was clear in all samples. We identified significant viral dysbiosis in children with CeD, suggesting a potential role in the pathogenesis of CeD indicating the need for further studies.

Amanda Queiroz Bastos ◽  
Cecilia Ferreira de Mello ◽  
Júlia dos Santos Silva ◽  
Hélcio Reinaldo Gil-Santana ◽  
Shayenne Olsson Freitas Silva ◽  

Abstract This study registers the diversity of Culicidae in the Bom Retiro Private Natural Heritage Reserve (RPPNBR), Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil, based on the collection of the immature stages in natural and artificial larval habitats. Larvae and pupae were collected monthly at two sites of the RPPNBR from May 2014 to July 2015 using dippers and aquatic pipettes. The diversity of the mosquito community was described using the Shannon–Wiener Diversity Index (H′), as well as diversity, richness, and dominance of species found in different larval habitats (lake, bamboos, bromeliads, and artificial vessels). The Mann–Whitney test was used to calculate differences between the two natural and artificial habitats. Overall, 15,659 specimens belonging to 25 species, ten genera, and two subfamilies were collected. The most abundant species collected at sites that were reforested recently were Culex pleuristriatus Theobald, 1903, Limatus durhamii (Theobald, 1901), Aedes albopictus (Skuse, 1895), Culex neglectus (Lutz, 1904), and Culex retrosus (Lane & Whitman, 1951). In a forest preserved site, the most abundant species were Cx. neglectus, Culex iridescens (Lutz, 1905), Sabethes identicus (Dyar & Knab, 1907), Wyeomyia arthrostigma (Lutz, 1905), and Li. durhamii. With respect to larval habitats, 0.1% of the specimens were collected along the edge of a lake, 5.5% in bamboos, 35.9% in bromeliads, and 58.4% in artificial containers. Only 5.5% of the specimens were collected in the forest preserved site, with the remaining samples from the site with altered vegetation. A greater species richness and diversity were found in forest-altered sites compared to the forest preserved site. Several species were collected in the water accumulated in the nylon lids of plastic water tanks. Such vessels can promote an increase in mosquito population density in the environment surrounding the study area.

2022 ◽  
Vol 2 ◽  
Demba Kodindo Israël ◽  
Cheick Amadou Coulibaly ◽  
Ibrahim Moussa Sissoko ◽  
Bourama Traoré ◽  
André B. B. Wilke ◽  

Leishmaniasis transmitted by sandflies is an important vector-borne disease. In Chad, information on sandflies is outdated, and so this study was designed to update the sandfly fauna. Sandflies were collected in five health districts representing two geoclimatic zones using sticky traps and pyrethrum sprays in indoor and peridomestic habitats between September 2019 and December 2020. All collected sandfly specimens were identified based on species-level morphological characters. A total of 2,015 specimens belonging to 13 species of sandflies (one Phlebotomus and twelve Sergentomyia) were collected and identified. The vector of human cutaneous leishmaniasis, Phlebotomus duboscqi, represents 0.65% of all collected sandflies and is the only representative of the Phlebotomus genus to be collected predominantly inside human dwellings. Phlebotomus orientalis, the vector of visceral leishmaniasis previously collected in Chad in 1976 was not found in this study. Sergentomyia clydei, Sergentomyia schwetzi, Sergentomyia antennata and Sergentomyia africana were the most abundant species collected with 44.71%; 22.73%; 16.03% and 11.17%, respectively. Sergentomyia schwetzi and Sergentomyia dubia, the two species involved in the transmission of canine leishmaniasis, were found in five and four study sites respectively. According to our results, the sandfly fauna of the two geoclimatic zones of Chad is comprised of 13 species. Our data showed that, unlike P. orientalis which was not found, P. duboscqi is present in four of the five sites surveyed. Therefore, these areas are at risk and remain potential foci of cutaneous leishmaniasis. However, the need for further studies such as vector species detection, their seasonal fluctuations and their vector competence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Bracha Schindler ◽  
Efrat Gavish-Regev ◽  
Tamar Keasar

In order to integrate parasitoid wasps in agroecosystems as biological control agents, we need to understand how insecticides affect the parasitoids in the crops and their surroundings. We investigated the non-target effect of Indoxacarb, an insecticide commonly used against European grapevine moth, on parasitoid wasp communities in vineyards. We focused on characterizing: 1. The dynamics of common wasp species, and 2. Wasp abundance and species richness in the vineyard center, edge, and nearby natural area. Seven vineyards, with neighboring natural areas, were sampled before, and up to 2 weeks after, Indoxacarb applications over 2 years. We expected initial negative effects of spraying in the vineyard with some effect of Indoxacarb drift into the natural habitat, followed by wasp recovery, first in natural areas, then at the vineyard edge and finally in the center. Sticky traps were hung at the vineyard edge and center to evaluate migration into and out of the vineyard. Vacuum sampling was used to obtain parasitoid total abundance and species richness, and the abundances of four common species (43% of the wasps collected). From the vacuum samples we found that total wasp abundance and richness declined after spraying in the vineyards’ margins and center but rose over time in the natural area. Vineyard wasp abundance was restored to pre-spraying levels within 2 weeks. Among the abundant species, Trichogramma sp. and Telenomus sp., which parasitize lepidopteran hosts, declined after spraying, and Trichogramma sp. recovered more quickly than Telenomus sp. Two other abundant species, Lymaenon litoralis and Oligosita sp., did not decline after spraying. In the sticky traps, wasp abundance increased at the vineyard edge but not center after spraying, suggesting that there was migration of wasps at the vineyard edge, into or out of the crop. The results indicate an effect of Indoxacarb on the parasitoid wasp community, particularly on parasitoids of lepidopterans, the target group of Indoxacarb. The results also indicate a potential for recovery of the parasitoid community through migration from neighboring natural vegetation.

2022 ◽  
Malena Maroli ◽  
Carla M. Bellomo ◽  
Rocío M. Coelho ◽  
Valeria P. Martinez ◽  
Carlos I. Piña ◽  

Hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS) is an emerging infectious disease caused by orthohantaviruses associated to rodents of the Cricetidae family, Sigmodontinae subfamily, in the American continent. Previous research carried out in central-east region of Argentina, recorded potential orthohantavirus host rodents in diverse environments, but infected rodents were particularly present on Paraná wetlands islands. The aims of this research were (1) to determine the orthohantavirus host in the rodent community focused on islands of Paraná River Delta, an endemic zone of HPS, (2) to identify temporal and spatial factors associated with orthohantavirus prevalence variations, (3) to compare the individual characteristics of seropositive and seronegative rodents and, (4) to explore the association between orthohantavirus seroprevalence and rodent community characteristics in the Paraná River Delta, central-east region of Argentina. Capture of small rodents was done between August 2014 and May 2018 on seven islands located in central-east region of Argentina. In this HPS endemic zone, 14.9% of Oligoryzomys flavescens and 1.5% of Oxymycterus rufus of the sampled rodents had antibodies against orthohantavirus. The individuals that were more likely to become seropositive were the reproductively active adult males. Even though O. flavescens inhabit all islands, the seropositive individuals were only present in two of these, suggesting spatial heterogeneity in the viral distribution. We found that two months later of periods with low temperature, seroprevalence increased probably due to a higher proportion of adults in the population. Additionally, higher seroprevalence was associated with greater diversity of the rodent assemblage. This association could support the idea that a rescue effect or amplification of the prevalence of orthohantavirus would be taking place by means of secondary host as O. rufus, a novelty for this species and for the region. This finding may be significant if one takes into account that O. rufus was the second most abundant species in the area of islands studied and is one of the most abundant species on the islands and riparian sectors of the study zone. In conclusion, the relative risk of HPS could be high on wetlands of Paraná River Delta in the central-east region of Argentina where several favourable factors for the transmission of orthohantavirus are combined, such as the presence of several host species, two of them numerically dominant, high percentages of infection and a high degree of occupational exposure of the human population due to rural activities, the most frequently associated nationwide with HPS.

Brook A. Niemiec ◽  
Jerzy Gawor ◽  
Shuiquan Tang ◽  
Aishani Prem ◽  
Janina A. Krumbeck

Abstract OBJECTIVE To compare the bacteriome of the oral cavity in healthy dogs and dogs with various stages of periodontal disease. ANIMALS Dogs without periodontal disease (n = 12) or with mild (10), moderate (19), or severe (10) periodontal disease. PROCEDURES The maxillary arcade of each dog was sampled with a sterile swab, and swabs were submitted for next-generation DNA sequencing targeting the V1–V3 region of the 16S rRNA gene. RESULTS 714 bacterial species from 177 families were identified. The 3 most frequently found bacterial species were Actinomyces sp (48/51 samples), Porphyromonas cangingivalis (47/51 samples), and a Campylobacter sp (48/51 samples). The most abundant species were P cangingivalis, Porphyromonas gulae, and an undefined Porphyromonas sp. Porphyromonas cangingivalis and Campylobacter sp were part of the core microbiome shared among the 4 groups, and P gulae, which was significantly enriched in dogs with severe periodontal disease, was part of the core microbiome shared between all groups except dogs without periodontal disease. Christensenellaceae sp, Bacteroidales sp, Family XIII sp, Methanobrevibacter oralis, Peptostreptococcus canis, and Tannerella sp formed a unique core microbiome in dogs with severe periodontal disease. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Results highlighted that in dogs, potential pathogens can be common members of the oral cavity bacteriome in the absence of disease, and changes in the relative abundance of certain members of the bacteriome can be associated with severity of periodontal disease. Future studies may aim to determine whether these changes are the cause or result of periodontal disease or the host immune response.

2022 ◽  
Vol 951 (1) ◽  
pp. 012062
J Jauharlina ◽  
A Anhar ◽  
M Minarti

Abstract Fig trees (Ficus spp.) and their pollinating wasps (Hymenoptera; Agaonindae) are a unique system to study mutualism. Female fig wasps deposit eggs and develop their progeny in galled female flowers inside the figs, while fig wasps pollinate females flower inside the same figs. A study investigating fig tree species composition and pollinating wasps was conducted at Universitas Syiah Kuala campus, Banda Aceh. We recorded all fig tree species found in the area from Dec 2020 until June 2021. Ten semi-ripe fig fruits on each fig tree were sampled and brought to the laboratory to examine the wasps inside. We recorded 112 individuals fig trees that belonged to 11 species; most of them were monoecious species. The most abundant species was Ficus altissima, followed by F. Benjamina, and F. macrocarpa, while the least was F.racemosa and F. carica. A number of 20.7± 6.5 (Mean ± SE) female pollinator Eupristina koningsbergeri was counted in a single fig of F. benjamina compared to 350.4±45.4 (Mean ± SE) Ceratosolen fusciceps female wasps in fig of F.racemosa. This study has provided an example of obligate mutualism between different species in the local area, which has been observed since a long time ago.

2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 2
Jialin Li ◽  
Xinting Yu ◽  
Ella Sciamma-O’Brien ◽  
Chao He ◽  
Joshua A. Sebree ◽  

Abstract In Titan’s nitrogen-methane atmosphere, photochemistry leads to the production of complex organic particles, forming Titan’s thick haze layers. Laboratory-produced aerosol analogs, or “tholins,” are produced in a number of laboratories; however, most previous studies have investigated analogs produced by only one laboratory rather than a systematic, comparative analysis. In this study, we performed a comparative study of an important material property, the surface energy, of seven tholin samples produced in three independent laboratories under a broad range of experimental conditions, and we explored their commonalities and differences. All seven tholin samples are found to have high surface energies and are therefore highly cohesive. Thus, if the surface sediments on Titan are similar to tholins, future missions such as Dragonfly will likely encounter sticky sediments. We also identified a commonality between all the tholin samples: a high dispersive (nonpolar) surface energy component of at least 30 mJ m−2. This common property could be shared by the actual haze particles on Titan as well. Given that the most abundant species interacting with the haze on Titan (methane, ethane, and nitrogen) are nonpolar in nature, the dispersive surface energy component of the haze particles could be a determinant factor in condensate−haze and haze−lake liquid interactions on Titan. With this common trait of tholin samples, we confirmed the findings of a previous study by Yu et al. that haze particles are likely good cloud condensation nuclei for methane and ethane clouds and would likely be completely wetted by the hydrocarbon lakes on Titan.

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