3d models
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2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-12
Martina Polig ◽  
Sorin Hermon ◽  
Joachim Bretschneider

A recurrent demand in many archaeological digital documentation systems is the need for an accurate as possible registration of data. Somehow, contrary to this request, are efforts led by various computer science groups dealing with 3D documentation and focusing on developing fast and cheap solutions to record 3D models of archaeological assets. The aim of the article is to highlight the importance of aligning the 3D documentation strategy to the archaeological aims, by detailing all factors to be considered when deciding on one documentation strategy over another. The archaeological question discussed here, part of the PhD thesis of one of the co-authors (MP), relates to the Cypro-Minoan signatory and its diachronic variability. The 3D geometric characterization of signs and subsequent shape analysis is the method chosen to reach this goal. A major effort to be invested in correctly determining the shape and variability of each sign, is in assuring that the 3D captured shape is as close as possible to the archaeological reality, which is a common problem not only in palaeographical analysis but also in other fields, where features of interest are in the sub-millimetre range. The paper will illustrate how different data acquisition approaches and post-processing steps such as alignment methods and error treatment may distort the visualised result and thus have a negative impact on planned analysis. Thus, it will argue for the importance of more detailed paradata to allow an informed assessment of the reliability of 3D models and it proposes a list of values and decision-making steps that help make the 3D digitization process more robust and verifiable.

2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 1-17
Stefan Krumpen ◽  
Reinhard Klein ◽  
Michael Weinmann

VR/AR technology is a key enabler for new ways of immersively experiencing cultural heritage artifacts based on their virtual counterparts obtained from a digitization process. In this article, we focus on enriching VR-based object inspection by additional haptic feedback, thereby creating tangible cultural heritage experiences. For this purpose, we present an approach for interactive and collaborative VR-based object inspection and annotation. Our system supports high-quality 3D models with accurate reflectance characteristics while additionally providing haptic feedback regarding shape features of the object based on a 3D printed replica. The digital object model in terms of a printable representation of the geometry as well as reflectance characteristics are stored in a compact and streamable representation on a central server, which streams the data to remotely connected users/clients. The latter can jointly perform an interactive inspection of the object in VR with additional haptic feedback through the 3D printed replica. Evaluations regarding system performance, visual quality of the considered models, as well as insights from a user study indicate an improved interaction, assessment, and experience of the considered objects.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (5) ◽  
pp. 888-896
Wenjuan Fan ◽  
Chen Xudong ◽  
Sun Yizheng ◽  
Shanshan Wu ◽  
Haili Wang ◽  

Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurologic disorder that impacts a diverse population of older adults. As three-dimensional (3D) models are powerful tools for advancing AD studies, the authors have been developed AD cortical organoids to enable the observation of AD pathology at the cellular, tissue, and organ levels. For creating the model, APPSwe/Ind (APP) and PSEN1 (PS1) mutant genes were transfected into mouse induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) following which the iPSC lines that expressed mutant APP and PS1 proteins were obtained. Then, using modified serum-free suspended embryoid body culture, AD cerebral organoids were made successfully at various ages. The AD model can show AD’s biochemical and pathological alterations, such as overexpressions of Aβ40 and Aβ42 and a decrease of GABAergic interneurons. The proposed model has the potential for implementation in many biomedical applications, including AD drug screening, stem cell transplant, and neuronal tissue engineering.

2022 ◽  
Vol 124 (2) ◽  
pp. 151849
Bryan Ôrtero Perez Gonçalves ◽  
Warne Pedro de Andrade ◽  
Sílvia Ligório Fialho ◽  
Luciana Maria Silva

2022 ◽  
Vol 2022 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Huachao Yang ◽  
Hefang Bian ◽  
Bin Li ◽  
Weihua Bi ◽  
Xingtao Zhao

Newly developed oblique photogrammetry (OP) techniques based on unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multicamera imaging systems are widely used in many fields. Smartphones cost less than the cameras commonly used in the existing UAV OP system, providing high-resolution images from a built-in imaging sensor. In this paper, we design and implement a novel low-cost and ultralight UAV OP system based on smartphones. Firstly, five digital cameras and their accessories detached from the smartphones are then fitted into a very small device to synchronously shoot images at five different perspective angles. An independent automatic capture control system is also developed to realize this function. The proposed smartphone-based multicamera imaging system is then mounted on a modified version of an existing lightweight UAV platform to form a UAV OP system. Three typical application examples are then considered to evaluate the performance of this system through practical experiments. Our results indicate that both horizontal and vertical location accuracy of the generated 3D models in all three test applications achieve centimeter-level accuracy with respect to different ground sampling distances (GSDs) of 1.2 cm, 2.3 cm, and 3.1 cm. The accuracy of the two types of vector maps derived from the corresponding 3D models also meet the requirements set by the surveying and mapping standards. The textural quality reflected by the 3D models and digital ortho maps (DOMs) are also distinguishable and clearly represent the actual color of different ground objects. Our experimental results confirm the quality and accuracy of our system. Although flight efficiency and the accuracy of our designed UAV OP system are lower than that of the commercial versions, it provides several unique features including very low-cost, ultralightweight, and significantly easier operation and maintenance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (2) ◽  
pp. 769
Francesco Simone Mensa ◽  
Maurizio Muzzi ◽  
Federica Spani ◽  
Giuliana Tromba ◽  
Christian Dullin ◽  

Many techniques are used today to study insect morphology, including light and electron microscopy. Most of them require to specifically prepare the sample, precluding its use for further investigation. In contrast, micro-CT allows a sample to be studied in a non-destructive and rapid process, even without specific treatments that might hinder the use of rare and hard-to-find species in nature. We used synchrotron radiation (SR) micro-CT and conventional micro-CT to prepare 3D reconstructions of Diptera, Coleoptera, and Hymenoptera species that had been processed with 4 common preparation procedures: critical-point drying, sputter-coating, resin embedding, and air-drying. Our results showed that it is possible to further utilize insect samples prepared with the aforementioned preparation techniques for the creation of 3D models. Specimens dried at the critical point showed the best results, allowing us to faithfully reconstruct both their external surface and their internal structures, while sputter-coated insects were the most troublesome for the 3D reconstruction procedure. Air-dried specimens were suitable for external morphological analyses, while anatomical investigation of soft internal organs was not possible due to their shrinking and collapsing. The sample included in resin allowed us to reconstruct and appreciate the external cuticle and the internal parts. In this work, we demonstrate that insect samples destined to different analyses can be used for new micro-CT studies, further deepening the possibility of state-of-the-art morphological analyses.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
pp. 8
Arish Dasan ◽  
Jozef Kraxner ◽  
Luca Grigolato ◽  
Gianpaolo Savio ◽  
Hamada Elsayed ◽  

The present study illustrates the manufacturing method of hierarchically porous 3D scaffolds based on åkermanite as a promising bioceramic for stereolithography. The macroporosity was designed by implementing 3D models corresponding to different lattice structures (cubic, diamond, Kelvin, and Kagome). To obtain micro-scale porosity, flame synthesized glass microbeads with 10 wt% of silicone resins were utilized to fabricate green scaffolds, later converted into targeted bioceramic phase by firing at 1100 °C in air. No chemical reaction between the glass microspheres, crystallizing into åkermanite, and silica deriving from silicone oxidation was observed upon heat treatment. Silica acted as a binder between the adjacent microspheres, enhancing the creation of microporosity, as documented by XRD, and SEM coupled with EDX analysis. The formation of ‘spongy’ struts was confirmed by infiltration with Rhodamine B solution. The compressive strength of the sintered porous scaffolds was up to 0.7 MPa with the porosity of 68–84%.

2022 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 31
Graziano Montaruli ◽  
Simona Virgilio ◽  
Michele Laurenziello ◽  
Michele Tepedino ◽  
Domenico Ciavarella

The aim of this retrospective study was to compare the efficiency of two biologically oriented devices in achieving maxillary expansion: Rapid Palatal Expander (RPE) and Nitanium Palatal Expander-2 (NPE-2). Thirty-six subjects, divided in two equal groups, were included in this study. Maxillary dental arches were scanned using Trios 3 shape®, in order to perform a digital analysis of 3D models. The models were analyzed using Autodesk Fusion 360® and Meshmixer®. All data obtained from analysis of pre-treatment and post-treatment models were processed using Prism® software. The anterior arch width, the posterior arch width, the palate height, and palatal surface were measured to evaluate differences between the devices. A D’Agostino–Pearson normality test was done to check the data. A non-parametric t-test was used to compare the anterior and posterior arch width between the two groups, while a parametric t-test was used to compare the palatal height measurements between the two groups. The p-value was calculated. The limit value fixed was 0.05. Palatal width and surface showed a significant increase in both groups, but no significant changes in palatal height were found. The data processed showed that there were no significant differences between the devices (ΔREP−ΔNPE) in variation of anterior arch width, there were no significant differences in variation of posterior arch width and there were no significant differences in variation of palatal height. The comparison between the two groups showed that both methods were equally effective in correcting transverse defect.

H. Rashidan ◽  
A. Abdul Rahman ◽  
I. A. Musliman ◽  
G. Buyuksalih

Abstract. 3D city models are increasingly being used to represent the complexity of today’s urban areas, as they aid in understanding how different aspects of a city can function. For instance, several municipalities and governmental organisations have constructed their 3D city models for various purposes. These 3D models, which are normally complex and contain semantics information, have typically been used for visualisation and visual analysis purposes. However, most of the available 3D models open datasets contain many geometric and topological errors, e.g., missing surfaces (holes), self-intersecting surfaces, duplicate vertices, etc. These errors prevent the datasets from being used for advanced applications such as 3D spatial analysis which requires valid datasets and topology to calculate its volume, detect surface orientation, area calculation, etc. Therefore, certain repairs must be done before taking these models into actual applications, and hole-filling (of missing surfaces) is an important one among them. Several studies on the topic of automatic repair of the 3D model have been conducted by various researchers, with different approaches have been developed. Thus, this paper describes a triangular mesh approach for automatically repair invalid (missing surfaces) 3D building model (LOD2). The developed approach demonstrates an ability to repair missing surfaces (with holes) in a 3D building model by reconstructing geometries of the holes of the affected model. The repaired model is validated and produced a closed-two manifold model.

F. I. Hairuddin ◽  
A. R. Abdul Rasam ◽  
M. H. Razali

Abstract. This paper discusses the capabilities of cadastre augmented reality (AR) and three-dimensional (3D) visualization in enhancing the stratified property visibility and information of the current strata plan in Malaysia. Currently, 2D information representation from the 2D+1D cadastre system is seen to be insufficient in serving real land management of the 3D aspect and property. Hence, toward a better digital 3D strata/property registration and land administration system in Malaysia, this study has explored the process in utilizing AR and 3D model to the current strata plan to enhance digital strata information contents and enabling the virtual strata plan presentation. The software used to develop the AR application smartphone was Unity3D software while Autodesk Revit applied to develop the 3D model and preparation of strata information. The interesting findings has been shown in this study. First result showed 3D models and strata parcel’s attribute that has been developed for AR digital content preparation. Secondly, this 3D-AR processes can continuously gather of user’s ambient information, conduct real-world recognition, and obtain real-world perception through smartphone device. Lastly, with utilization of AR technology in strata, it provides a more information to the strata plan without needing to change the current format of strata plan as the information are being displayed virtually onto the reality. With the integration of augmented reality and 3D visualization, the documentation of stratified properties in strata plan is potential to be enhanced from 2D planimetric to 3D representation. overlaid 3D model of the stratified property and standard strata information virtually on the present strata plan which has created an enhanced reality. This can allow the information to be viewed by more stakeholders with less restriction by using smartphone device.

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