intermetallic materials
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Energies ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 15 (1) ◽  
pp. 382
Danuta Król ◽  
Przemysław Motyl ◽  
Sławomir Poskrobko

The selection of appropriate heat-resistant materials which are at the same time resistant to atmospheres rich in chlorine and its compounds is one of the most important current construction problems in steel boiler elements when using biomass fuels of agricultural origin. In the research presented here, an area was identified in the furnace of a 10 kW boiler where there was a potential risk of chlorine corrosion. This zone was determined based on numerical analysis of the combustion process; it is the zone with the highest temperatures and where the gas atmosphere conducive to the formation of chlorine corrosion centers. Subsequently, tests were carried out in the process environment of the combustion chamber of a 10 kW boiler (the fuel was barley straw) by placing samples of eight construction materials in a numerically-designated zone. These included samples of steel (coal boiler St41K, heat-resistant H25T and H24JS, and heat-resistant valve 50H21G9N4) as well as intermetallic materials based on phases (FeAl, Fe3Al, NiAl, and Ni3Al). The samples remained in the atmosphere of the boiler furnace for 1152 h at a temperature of 750–900 °C. After this time, the surfaces of the samples were subjected to SEM microscopy and scanning analysis. The results showed that the St41K boiler steel was not suitable for operation under the assumed conditions, and that a thick layer of complex corrosion products was visible on its surface. The least amount of corrosion damage was observed for the samples of 50H21G9N4 steel and intermetallic materials.

Metals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (12) ◽  
pp. 1991
Benedikt Distl ◽  
Katja Hauschildt ◽  
Florian Pyczak ◽  
Frank Stein

The application of light-weight intermetallic materials to address the growing interest and necessity for reduction of CO2 emissions and environmental concerns has led to intensive research into TiAl-based alloy systems. However, the knowledge about phase relations and transformations is still very incomplete. Therefore, the results presented here from systematic thermal analyses of phase transformations in 12 ternary Ti-Al-Nb alloys and one binary Ti-Al measured with 4–5 different heating rates (0.8 to 10 °C/min) give insights in the kinetics of the second-order type reaction of ordered (βTi)o to disordered (βTi) as well as the three first-order type transformations from Ti3Al to (αTi), ωo (Ti4NbAl3) to (βTi)o, and O (Ti2NbAl) to (βTi)o. The sometimes-strong heating rate dependence of the transformation temperatures is found to vary systematically in dependence on the complexity of the transformations. The dependence on heating rate is nonlinear in all cases and can be well described by a model for solid-solid phase transformations reported in the literature, which allows the determination of the equilibrium transformation temperatures.

Metals ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (9) ◽  
pp. 1465
Xianjun Lei ◽  
Xiaopeng Wang ◽  
Fantao Kong ◽  
Haitao Zhou ◽  
Yuyong Chen

Self-induced internal corrosion stress transgranular cracking is investigated theoretically and experimentally linking grain boundary wetting (GBW) and grain boundary diffusion (GBD) to improve the ability to reveal the micro mechanism of crack in compositional gradient-structural intermetallic materials. Theoretical analysis shows that the grain boundary wetting and diffusion induce the diffusion-coupled dynamic internal stresses, and their interaction leads to crack nucleation. The experimental results show a stress concentration zone have been established at the grain boundary interface where the cracks preferentially nucleate and then extend through the inside of the grain to both sides, forming a typical transgranular fracture.

2021 ◽  
Vol 865 ◽  
pp. 158948
A. Herrero ◽  
A. Oleaga ◽  
A. Provino ◽  
I.R. Aseguinolaza ◽  
A. Salazar ◽  

Materials ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (4) ◽  
pp. 1030
Anna Knaislová ◽  
Pavel Novák ◽  
Marcello Cabibbo ◽  
Lucyna Jaworska ◽  
Dalibor Vojtěch

This paper describes the effect of silicon on the manufacturing process, structure, phase composition, and selected properties of titanium aluminide alloys. The experimental generation of TiAl–Si alloys is composed of titanium aluminide (TiAl, Ti3Al or TiAl3) matrix reinforced by hard and heat-resistant titanium silicides (especially Ti5Si3). The alloys are characterized by wear resistance comparable with tool steels, high hardness, and very good resistance to oxidation at high temperatures (up to 1000 °C), but also low room-temperature ductility, as is typical also for other intermetallic materials. These alloys had been successfully prepared by the means of powder metallurgical routes and melting metallurgy methods.

Metals ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1550
Sarper Nizamoglu ◽  
Karl-Heinz Lang ◽  
Stefan Guth ◽  
Martin Heilmaier

Intermetallic materials typically change their deformation behavior from brittle to ductile at a certain temperature called the Brittle-to-Ductile Transition Temperature (BDTT). This specific temperature can be determined by the Charpy impact, tensile or bending tests conducted at different temperatures and strain rates, which usually requires a large number of specimens. In order to reduce the number of necessary specimens for finding the BDTT, a new methodology comprising cyclic loadings as the crucial step was studied on a fully lamellar TiAl alloy with composition Ti-48Al-2Nb-0.7Cr-0.3Si. The loading blocks are applied isothermally under strain control and repeated on the same specimen at different temperatures. The development of plastic strain amplitude with increasing temperature is analyzed to determine the BDTT of the specimen. The BDTTs found with the described method agree well with literature data derived with conventional methods. With the loading strategy presented in this study, the BDTT and additionally the effect of strain rate on it can be found by using a single specimen.

Metals ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (11) ◽  
pp. 1505
Andrey A. Nepapushev ◽  
Dmitry O. Moskovskikh ◽  
Ksenia V. Vorotilo ◽  
Alexander S. Rogachev

Additive manufacturing (AM) of refractory materials requires either a high laser power or the use of various easily melting binders. In this work, we propose an alternative—the use of spherical reactive Ti/Al composite particles, obtained by preliminary high-energy ball milling. These powders were used to produce high-temperature TiAl-based materials during the selective laser melting (SLM) process. When laser heating is applied, mechanically activated composite particles readily react with the release of a considerable amount of heat and transform into corresponding intermetallic compounds. The combustion can be initiated at relatively low temperatures, and the exothermic effect prevents the sharp cooling of as-sintered tracks. This approach allows one to produce dense intermetallic materials with a homogeneous structure in one step via SLM and eliminates the need for powerful lasers, binders, or additional post-processing and heat treatments.

2020 ◽  
Vol 991 ◽  
pp. 44-50
Tri Widodo Besar Riyadi

Ni-Al-Ti system is one of the intermetallic systems that attract wide interest for high-temperature application. In this work, combustion synthesis was used to produce intermetallic materials prepared by Ni/Al with varied Ti content using 3%, 10%, 20%, and 30%. The reactant mixtures were compressed in a steel die to form compacted pellets. The ignition of the combustion process was conducted using an arch flame. Sequential tests of SEM, EDS, and XRD were conducted to characterize the microstructure of the synthesized products, whereas the mechanical properties of the product were measured using a Vickers microhardness test and wear test. The result shows that the phases formed in the product were dominated by Ni-Al and Ti-Ni systems. An increase in the Ti content from 3% to 20% increases the hardness. The formation of several intermetallic phases was responsible for the harder products. An increase of Ti content decreases the wear rate. This work shows that the content of 10% Ti can be used to achieve the optimized properties of hardness and wear resistance.

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