biomass accumulation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 43 (2) ◽  
pp. 491-508
Maria Fgênia Saldanha Diógenes ◽  
Vander Mendonça ◽  
Luciana Freitas de Medeiros Mendonça ◽  
Elias Ariel de Moura ◽  

The initial development of pitayas may be limited by a few factors, among them, water deficit. Agricultural hydrogels can be used as an alternative to enhance the retention and availability of water and nutrients in the soil. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the influence of irrigation frequency and hydrogel doses on the development of white pitaya (Hylocereus undatus) seedlings to establish a time interval in days between irrigations that provides better seedling development and determine the hydrogel dose that provides a reduction of water consumption without damaging seedling development. The experimental design consisted of randomized blocks in a 4 x 4 factorial arrangement, in which the treatments corresponded to 4 hydrogel doses (0, 2, 4, and 6 g/plant of Biogel Hidro Plus) incorporated into the substrate and four irrigation frequencies (1, 3, 5, and 7 days of interval). The biometric characteristics, photosynthetic pigments, and organic and inorganic solutes of the plants were evaluated after 120 days. The use of daily irrigation negatively influenced the growth and biomass accumulation of the aerial part of the seedlings and, consequently, provided the lowest values of cladodes of the pitaya seedlings. Pitaya seedlings had greater development when using an irrigation frequency of around 3 days. The application of 6 g/plant of hydrogel provided the highest averages for accumulation of dry biomass, photosynthetic pigments, and organic and inorganic solutes at irrigation levels of 3.6, 4, and about 3.8 days of intervals, respectively. Hydrogel incorporation allowed increasing the interval between irrigations by 1 day without damages to the seedling development.

Earth ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 76-92
David C. Wilson ◽  
Ram K. Deo ◽  
Jennifer Corcoran

We used LiDAR metrics and satellite imagery to examine regeneration on forested sites disturbed via harvest or natural means over a 44-year period. We tested the effectiveness of older low-density LiDAR elevation data in producing information related to existing levels of above ground biomass (AGB). To accomplish this, we paired the elevation data with a time series of wetness and greenness indices derived from Landsat satellite imagery to model changes in AGB for sites experiencing different agents of change. Current AGB was determined from high-density LiDAR acquired in northern Minnesota, USA. We then compared high-density LiDAR-based AGB and estimates modeled using Landsat and low-density LiDAR indices for 10,068 sites. Clear differences were found in standing AGB and accumulation rates between sites disturbed by different agents of change. Biomass accumulation following disturbance appears to decrease rapidly following an initial spike as stands 1asZX respond to newly opened growing space. Harvested sites experienced a roughly six-fold increase in the rate of biomass accumulation compared to sites subjected to stand replacing fire or insect and disease, and a 20% increase in productivity when compared to sites subjected to wind mediated canopy loss. Over time, this resulted in clear differences in standing AGB.

2022 ◽  
Vol 53 (1) ◽  
pp. 57-62
V. U. M. RAO ◽  

Field experiment was conducted for two crop seasons (1996-97 & 1997-98) at CCS, HAU, Hisar research farm to study the effect of weather parameters on growth and yield of mustard. The results indicated that an increase in maximum temperature and duration of sunshine hours resulted in increased leaf area index (LAI). The increase in daytime temperature resulted in higher biomass accumulation during vegetative phase, but the trend was reversed during physiological maturity. The biomass accumulation in brassicas increased with increase in evaporation rate during the grand growth period. However, latter on during the physiological maturity, increase in evaporation rate resulted in decline of biomass accumulation. Further, it was noted that the magnitudes of some important weather parameters (maximum and minimum temperatures, pan evaporation and morning relative humidity) during the vegetative phase of crop played decisive role in deciding the quantum of seed yield which is a resultant of various yield attributes. The rainfall during the crop growing season either have no association or had a negative relationship with yield and yield attributes because crop never experienced water stress as abundant moisture was made available through irrigation.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Panita Chutimanukul ◽  
Praderm Wanichananan ◽  
Supattana Janta ◽  
Theerayut Toojinda ◽  
Clive Terence Darwell ◽  

AbstractLight-emitting diodes (LEDs) are an artificial light source used in indoor cultivation to influence plant growth, photosynthesis performance and secondary metabolite synthesis. Holy basil plants (Ocimum tenuiflorum) were cultivated under fully controlled environmental conditions with different red (R) and blue (B) light intensity ratios (3R:1B, 1R:1B and 1R:3B), along with combined green (G) LED (2R:1G:2B). The photosynthetic activities of both cultivars were maximal under 3R:1B. However, the highest fresh (FW) and dry (DW) weight values of green holy basil were recorded under 3R:1B and 2R:1G:2B, significantly higher than those under alternative light conditions. For red holy basil, the highest FW and DW were recorded under 1R:3B. Moreover, 2R:1G:2B treatment promoted pigment (chlorophyll and carotenoid) accumulation in green holy basil, while red holy basil was found to be rich in both pigments under 3R:1B. Antioxidant capacity was also influenced by light spectrum, resulting in greater total phenolic content (TPC) and DPPH accumulation in both cultivars under 1R:3B. The highest content of flavonoid in green holy basil was detected under 1R:1B; meanwhile, 1R:3B treatment significantly promoted flavonoid content in red holy basil. In addition, anthocyanin content increased in red holy basil under 1R:3B conditions. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC–MS/MS) analysis of chemical composition showed higher proportional accumulation in Methyleugenol and Caryophyllene of two cultivars grown under all light spectrum ratios at two developmental stages. Overall, specific light spectrum ratios induced different chemical composition responses in each cultivar and at each developmental stage. These results suggest that 3R:1B was favorable for biomass accumulation and photosynthetic responses in green holy basil, while 1R:3B provided antioxidant accumulation. For red holy basil cultivation, 1R:3B provided optimal growing conditions, promoting improvements in plant biomass, and physiological and antioxidant capacities.

2022 ◽  
Franciele Pereira Rossini ◽  
João Paulo Rodrigues Martins ◽  
Samuel Werner Moreira ◽  
Lorenzo Toscano Conde ◽  
Evens Clairvil ◽  

Abstract Despite having the ability to bioaccumulate trace elements such as cadmium (Cd), many species also present morphophysiological disorders that can hamper their use as phytoremediation plants. Since it can lead to alterations in biomass accumulation. The employment of elements that mitigate stress, such as silicon (Si), can diminish the deleterious effects caused by trace elements. The objective of this study was to analyze the anatomical and physiological modulations induced by the synergy between Cd and Si in Alternanthera tenella plants, as well as to elucidate whether Si can mitigate the harmful effects caused by Cd under in vitro conditions. Nodal segments were cultured in media containing a concentration gradient of Cd (0, 50, 100, or 200 μM) combined with two levels of Si (0 or 40 μM) for a total of eight treatments. After 34 days, the plants' anatomy, physiology, and tolerance index were analyzed. The plants presented anatomical adjustments (such as lower stomatal index and number of vessel elements), suggesting lower translocation of Cd to the aerial part. When cultured with 200 μM Cd, the plants presented the lowest Chl a/b ratio. In the presence of Si, the decline of this ratio was smaller. Plants exposed to Cd concentrations of 50 μM without Si presented a significant decrease in the performance of the photosynthetic apparatus and tolerance index. The presence of Si in the medium reduced the damages caused by cadmium to the plants' physiology, resulting in greater growth and higher tolerance to this element.

Agronomy ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 160
Mark F. Richards ◽  
Lancelot Maphosa ◽  
Aaron L. Preston

Chickpea growth, development and grain yield are affected by a range of climatic and environmental factors. Experiments were conducted across four sowing dates from mid-April to the end of May, over two years at Trangie in central western New South Wales (NSW), and Leeton, Wagga Wagga and Yanco (one year) in southern NSW, to examine the influence of sowing time on biomass accumulation, grain yield and plant yield components. Climatic and experimental location data were recorded during the growing seasons. Early sowing (mid-April) resulted in taller plants, higher bottom and top pod heights, fewer pods, more unfilled pods and greater biomass accumulation, but low harvest index due to reduced grain yield compared with late sowing (end of May). Grain number was positively correlated with grain yield and was the main yield component accounting for most of the variation in yield. There was largely a positive correlation between biomass and yield, especially with delayed sowing except for Leeton experiments. This study concludes that sowing around the end of April in central western NSW and mid-May in southern NSW is conducive to higher grain yield as it minimises exposure to abiotic stresses at critical growth periods and allows efficient conversion of biomass to grain yield.

Plants ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 171
Olga A. Aleynova ◽  
Andrey R. Suprun ◽  
Alexey A. Ananev ◽  
Nikolay N. Nityagovsky ◽  
Zlata V. Ogneva ◽  

Stilbenes are plant phenolics known to rapidly accumulate in grapevine and other plants in response to injury or pathogen attack and to exhibit a great variety of healing beneficial effects. It has previously been shown that several calmodulin-like protein (CML) genes were highly up-regulated in cell cultures of wild-growing grapevine Vitis amurensis Rupr. in response to stilbene-modulating conditions, such as stress hormones, UV-C, and stilbene precursors. Both CML functions and stilbene biosynthesis regulation are still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the effect of overexpression of five VaCML genes on stilbene and biomass accumulation in the transformed cell cultures of V. amurensis. We obtained 16 transgenic cell lines transformed with the VaCML52, VaCML65, VaCML86, VaCML93, and VaCML95 genes (3–4 independent lines per gene) under the control of the double CaMV 35S promoter. HPLC-MS analysis showed that overexpression of the VaCML65 led to a considerable and consistent increase in the content of stilbenes of 3.8–23.7 times in all transformed lines in comparison with the control calli, while biomass accumulation was not affected. Transformation of the V. amurensis cells with other analyzed VaCML genes did not lead to a consistent and considerable effect on stilbene biosynthesis in the cell lines. The results indicate that the VaCML65 gene is implicated in the signaling pathway regulating stilbene biosynthesis as a strong positive regulator and can be useful in viticulture and winemaking for obtaining grape cultivars with a high content of stilbenes and stress resistance.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 661
Olga Senko ◽  
Nikolay Stepanov ◽  
Olga Maslova ◽  
Elena Efremenko

It was found that immobilization of cells in poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) cryogel can be successfully applied for concurrent cryoimmobilization, cryoconservation and long-term storage of the cells of various phototrophic microorganisms (green and red microalgae, diatoms and cyanobacteria). For the first time, it was shown for 12 different immobilized microalgal cells that they can be stored frozen for at least 18 months while retaining a high level of viability (90%), and can further be used as an inoculum upon defrosting for cell-free biomass accumulation. Application of cryoimmobilized Chlorella vulgaris cells as inocula allowed the loading of a high concentration of the microalgal cells into the media for free biomass accumulation, thus increasing the rate of the process. It was shown that as minimum of 5 cycles of reuse of the same immobilized cells as inocula for cell accumulation could be realized when various real wastewater samples were applied as media for simultaneous microalgae cultivation and water purification.

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