group formation
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2022 ◽  
Vol 176 ◽  
pp. 121461
Reshawn Ramjattan ◽  
Nicholas Hosein ◽  
Patrick Hosein ◽  
Andre Knoesen

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (1) ◽  
Ya Lv ◽  
Guoyong Luo ◽  
Qian Liu ◽  
Zhichao Jin ◽  
Xinglong Zhang ◽  

AbstractThe applications of axially chiral benzonitriles and their derivatives remain mostly unexplored due to their synthetic difficulties. Here we disclose an unusual strategy for atroposelective access to benzonitriles via formation of the nitrile unit on biaryl scaffolds pre-installed with stereogenic axes in racemic forms. Our method starts with racemic 2-arylbenzaldehydes and sulfonamides as the substrates and N-heterocyclic carbenes as the organocatalysts to afford axially chiral benzonitriles in good to excellent yields and enantioselectivities. DFT calculations suggest that the loss of p-toluenesulfinate group is both the rate-determining and stereo-determining step. The axial chirality is controlled during the bond dissociation and CN group formation. The reaction features a dynamic kinetic resolution process modulated by both covalent and non-covalent catalytic interactions. The axially chiral benzonitriles from our method can be easily converted to a large set of functional molecules that show promising catalytic activities for chemical syntheses and anti-bacterial activities for plant protections.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 12-20
Ririn Aprianita

Learning mathematics during the Covid-19 pandemic required a lot of adjustments, in terms of materials, methods, media, strategies, and so on.  This paper describes the results of one best practice in learning mathematics by implementing e-peer tutoring method as a form of distance learning during the Covid-19 pandemic.  The aim of this writing is to describe the implementation of e-peer tutoring method in learning mathematics, especially in the material of Linear Equations and Inequalities of One Variable for grade VII Junior High School 1 Wonosari, Gunungkidul.  The stages of this method includes the preparation, implementation, and evaluation. Analysis of initial ability, tutor selection, group formation, and preparation of learning program were carried out in the preparation stage.  As for the activities at the implementation stage, the teacher uploads material and discussion sheets via Google Classroom, students discuss in their groups through Whatsapp group with the help of the tutor, students send assignments online, and the tutor reports on discussion activities.  At the evaluation stage, students take test and fill out the questionnaires.  The results at the evaluation stage indicate that this method can work well and has a positive impact on cognitive and affective aspects.  In terms of cognitive aspects, the average score and percentage of students’ mastery increased compared to the previous basic competencies.  In terms of affective aspect, this method has a positive impact on students’ motivation and self-confidence.

2022 ◽  
Vol 42 (1) ◽  
pp. 15-31
Monday Eze ◽  
Charles Okunbor ◽  
Solomon Esomu ◽  
Nneka Richard-Nnabu ◽  
Kayode Oladapo ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (12) ◽  
pp. e1009695
Fillipe Georgiou ◽  
Jerome Buhl ◽  
J. E. F. Green ◽  
Bishnu Lamichhane ◽  
Ngamta Thamwattana

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Madeleine M. Ostwald ◽  
Romain A. Dahan ◽  
Zachary Shaffer ◽  
Jennifer H. Fewell

Kin selection theory has dominated our understanding of the evolution of group living. However, many animal groups form among non-relatives, which gain no indirect fitness benefits from cooperating with nestmates. In this study, we characterized the relatedness and inter-nest migration behavior of the facultatively social carpenter bee, Xylocopa sonorina. Nesting constraints due to costly nest construction in this species give rise to intense intraspecific competition over access to existing nests. We used mark-recapture techniques to characterize patterns of dispersal and nest relocation within a nesting aggregation of spatially clustered nests. Two-thirds of bees relocated at least once during the reproductive season, likely to seek reproductive opportunities in another nest. This fluid nest membership creates opportunities for association among non-relatives. To assess the effects of this dynamic nesting behavior on group relatedness, we used microsatellite analysis to estimate relative relatedness within and between nests in the aggregation. We found that relatedness was variable across sampling years, but that in many cases nestmates were no more related to one another than they were to non-nestmate bees in the population. Together, these results suggest that group composition in X. sonorina may result from strategies to maximize direct fitness. This study supports the hypothesis that factors beyond kinship, such as ecological constraints, are likely to drive group formation in this species.

2021 ◽  
Tom E. R. Belpaire ◽  
Jiří Pešek ◽  
Bram Lories ◽  
Kevin J. Verstrepen ◽  
Hans P. Steenackers ◽  

ABSTRACTIn Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the FLO1 gene encodes flocculins that lead to formation of multicellular flocs, that offer protection to the constituent cells. Flo1p was found to preferentially bind to fellow cooperators compared to defectors lacking FLO1 expression, resulting in enrichment of cooperators within the flocs. Given this dual function in cooperation and kin recognition, FLO1 has been termed a ‘green beard gene’. Because of the heterophilic nature of Flo1p binding however, we hypothesize that kin recognition is permissive and depends on the relative stability of FLO1+/flo1− versus FLO1+/FLO1+ bonds, which itself can be dependent on environmental conditions and intrinsic cell properties. We combine single cell measurements of adhesion strengths, individual cell-based simulations of cluster formation and evolution, and in vitro flocculation experiments to study the impact of relative bond stability on defector exclusion as well as benefit and stability of cooperation. We hereto vary the relative bond stability by changing the shear flow rate and the inherent bond strength. We identify a marked trade-off between both aspects of the green beard mechanism, with reduced relative bond stability leading to increased kin recognition, but at the expense of decreased cluster sizes and benefit of cooperation. Most notably, we show that the selection of FLO1 cooperators is negative-frequency dependent, which we directly attribute to the permissive character of the Flo1p bond. Taking into account the costs associated to FLO1 expression, this asymmetric selection results in a broad range of ecological conditions where coexistence between cooperators and defectors is stable. Although the kin recognition aspect of the FLO1 ‘green beard gene’ is thus limited and condition dependent, the negative-frequency dependency of selection can conserve the diversity of flocculent and non-flocculent phenotypes ensuring flexibility towards variable selective pressures.

James C. Hower ◽  
Cortland F. Eble ◽  
Flor Muciño ◽  
Susan M. Rimmer ◽  
Maria Mastalerz

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