vehicle production
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Norteamérica ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (2) ◽  
Author(s):  
María de Lourdes Álvarez Medina

The article aims to analyze the changes in the free trade agreement of the United States, Mexico, and Canada (USMCA) for the automotive industry, explaining the origin and impact on light vehicle production in Mexico. The new rules affect the drivers of location decisions for companies and positively influence the growth rate of the automotive industry in the region, but unevenly for the countries and companies involved. The regional content value of each automobile assembled in Mexico and sold in the United States in 2020 is analyzed to understand the dynamics of competition and protectionism. There is a strategy to increase automotive manufacturing in the region, especially in the United States. The agreement promotes import substitution, increasing the regionalization of the supply chain. German and Asian carmakers producing in Mexico will need more adjustments.   Keywords: Automotive Industry, USMCA, industry relocation, rules of origin, protectionism.  


Author(s):  
Bo Zhang ◽  
Qiang Lu ◽  
Zheng Shen ◽  
Yaokun Yang ◽  
Yunlin Liang

Based on the localized data of environmental load, this study has established the life cycle assessment (LCA) model of battery electric passenger vehicle (BEPV) that be produced and used in China, and has evaluated the energy consumption and greenhouse gases (GHGs) emission during vehicle production and operation. The results show that the total energy consumption and GHG emissions are 438GJ and 37,100kg (in terms of CO2 equivalent) respectively. The share of GHG emissions in total emissions at the production stage is 24.6%, and 75.4% GHG emissions are contributed by the operational stage. The main source of energy consumption and GHG emissions at vehicle production stage is the extraction and processing of raw materials. The GHG emissions of raw materials production accounts for 75.0% in the GHG emissions of vehicle production and 18.0% in the GHG emissions of full life cycle. The scenario analysis shows that the application of recyclable materials, power grid GHG emission rates and vehicle energy consumption rates have significant influence on the carbon emissions in the life cycle of vehicle. Replacing primary metals with recycled metals can reduce GHG emissions of vehicle production by about 7.3%, and total GHG emissions can be reduced by about 1.8%. For every 1% decrease in GHG emissions per unit of electricity, the GHG emissions of operation stage will decrease by about 0.9%; for every 1.0% decrease in vehicle energy consumption rate, the total GHG emissions decrease by about 0.8%. Therefore, developing clean energy, reducing the proportion of coal power, optimizing the production of raw materials and increasing the application of recyclable materials are effective ways to improve the environmental performance of BEPV.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 316-344
Author(s):  
Stephen P. Holland ◽  
Erin T. Mansur ◽  
Andrew J. Yates

Electric vehicles have a unique potential to transform personal transportation. We analyze this transition with a dynamic model capturing falling costs of electric vehicles, decreasing pollution from electricity, and increasing vehicle substitutability. Our calibration to the US market shows a transition from gasoline vehicles is not optimal at current substitutability: a gasoline vehicle production ban would have large deadweight loss. At higher substitutability, a ban can reduce deadweight loss from vehicle mix and adoption timing inefficiencies. A cumulative gasoline vehicle production quota has smaller deadweight loss, and an electric vehicle purchase subsidy is more robust to regulator misperceptions about substitutability. (JEL H23, L51, L62, L94, Q53)


Author(s):  
Pawel M. Krolikowski ◽  
Kristoph N. Naggert
Keyword(s):  

Vehicle production has fallen since the beginning of the pandemic recession. We investigate reasons for this decline. Manufacturers in this industry cite insufficient materials, including a lack of semiconductors, as increasingly responsible. Demand seems to be less of an issue. In fact, demand has been strong, and together with accelerating prices and sharply declining inventories, it suggests an insufficient supply of new cars. Our best guess is that the materials shortages and their effects on new car prices will subside within the next six to nine months.


Author(s):  
Jiang Zhi

Commercial vehicle production preparation involves multiple departments and multiple businesses. Each business is prone to lack a sense of direction and integrity, so overall management is required. This article discusses the various segments of commercial vehicles. The special characteristics of production preparation were analyzed and classified and summarized to form sub-category work items, which established a working model for most commercial vehicle production preparation project managers. The authors propose management methods and management systems to achieve standardization of project management for commercial vehicle production preparations.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2 (2) ◽  
pp. 241-245
Author(s):  
Ida Bagus Mayun Andika Putra ◽  
Nyoman Gede Sugiartha ◽  
I Nyoman Subarnia

Cases in vehicle catching often occur given the increasing number of vehicle production increases. Someone commits the crime of motor vehicle theft because they want to own it, but the economy does not allow it to buy legally. One of the efforts to realize this is through restructuring because the price is much cheaper than the official price. The purpose of this research is to reveal the judges' considerations in the decision of car arresting cases and the criminal sanctions for car arresting offenders. The research method used is a normative research method with a conceptual approach and a case approach. The sources of legal materials used are primary and secondary sources of law. The technique of collecting legal materials is done by recording, quoting, reading, and summarizing the literature that refers to the judge's consideration in the decision of the car arresting case. After the legal materials are collected, they are analyzed systematically. The results of the study reveal that Article 480 of the Criminal Code is used as a criminal sanction for detention if the defendant is found guilty.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nadia Sultana

This paper takes a multi-step approach to answer the research question “What are the factors that affect the consumers’ EV purchasing decision-making process and how do they affect it?” In order to answer this question, this paper studies consumer data from the last 15 years. Using Hierarchical cluster analysis, this paper shows how the importance of the factors changes over time. A predictive model has been developed using Ethnographic Decision tree Modeling (EDTM) for the decision-making process of the owners of the 4 top selling EV. The top selling EVs includes models of Nissan Leaf, Tesla, Chevy Volt, and Toyota Prius, from year 2009 to 2014. This EDTM model indicates that while consumers prefer variables such as gas requirement, performance and mile coverage over other variables when deciding to purchase an EV, when given several options of EV they consider other variable such as the environment, brand and country of vehicle production to be more important.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Nadia Sultana

This paper takes a multi-step approach to answer the research question “What are the factors that affect the consumers’ EV purchasing decision-making process and how do they affect it?” In order to answer this question, this paper studies consumer data from the last 15 years. Using Hierarchical cluster analysis, this paper shows how the importance of the factors changes over time. A predictive model has been developed using Ethnographic Decision tree Modeling (EDTM) for the decision-making process of the owners of the 4 top selling EV. The top selling EVs includes models of Nissan Leaf, Tesla, Chevy Volt, and Toyota Prius, from year 2009 to 2014. This EDTM model indicates that while consumers prefer variables such as gas requirement, performance and mile coverage over other variables when deciding to purchase an EV, when given several options of EV they consider other variable such as the environment, brand and country of vehicle production to be more important.


Author(s):  
Jiang Jiali ◽  
Lin Yuanyuan ◽  
Zhang Zhenyang ◽  
Wang Jun

With the reduction of government subsidies for new energy vehicle, it has become an important decision problem for traditional vehicle enterprises with new energy vehicle production qualification to decide how much proportion of new energy vehicles should be produced. By maximizing the utility of the vehicle enterprise, this study analyses the influence of enterprise’s production decision and consumer’s preference payment premium for the performance of new energy vehicle on optimal mixed production and pricing decision after the subsidies withdraw from the new energy vehicle market. The Results show that: (1) consumer’s payment premium increases the proportion of new energy vehicles produced by automobile enterprise. The enterprise only produces traditional fuel vehicles instead of new energy vehicles, when the premium is less than a certain level; and when the payment premium is higher than a certain threshold, the enterprise merely produces new energy vehicles instead of traditional ones. (2) As the rise of consumer’s payment premium, the amount of people who consume vehicles show a downward trend, and finally only 1/2 of consumers will remain to purchase automobiles. (3) There shows a U-shaped relationship between the optimal profit of vehicle enterprise and consumer payment premium that the profit of vehicle enterprise will decline first and then rise with the increase of consumer payment premium.


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