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Damien Depannemaecker ◽  
Anton Ivanov ◽  
Davide Lillo ◽  
Len Spek ◽  
Christophe Bernard ◽  

AbstractThe majority of seizures recorded in humans and experimental animal models can be described by a generic phenomenological mathematical model, the Epileptor. In this model, seizure-like events (SLEs) are driven by a slow variable and occur via saddle node (SN) and homoclinic bifurcations at seizure onset and offset, respectively. Here we investigated SLEs at the single cell level using a biophysically relevant neuron model including a slow/fast system of four equations. The two equations for the slow subsystem describe ion concentration variations and the two equations of the fast subsystem delineate the electrophysiological activities of the neuron. Using extracellular K+ as a slow variable, we report that SLEs with SN/homoclinic bifurcations can readily occur at the single cell level when extracellular K+ reaches a critical value. In patients and experimental models, seizures can also evolve into sustained ictal activity (SIA) and depolarization block (DB), activities which are also parts of the dynamic repertoire of the Epileptor. Increasing extracellular concentration of K+ in the model to values found during experimental status epilepticus and DB, we show that SIA and DB can also occur at the single cell level. Thus, seizures, SIA, and DB, which have been first identified as network events, can exist in a unified framework of a biophysical model at the single neuron level and exhibit similar dynamics as observed in the Epileptor.Author Summary: Epilepsy is a neurological disorder characterized by the occurrence of seizures. Seizures have been characterized in patients in experimental models at both macroscopic and microscopic scales using electrophysiological recordings. Experimental works allowed the establishment of a detailed taxonomy of seizures, which can be described by mathematical models. We can distinguish two main types of models. Phenomenological (generic) models have few parameters and variables and permit detailed dynamical studies often capturing a majority of activities observed in experimental conditions. But they also have abstract parameters, making biological interpretation difficult. Biophysical models, on the other hand, use a large number of variables and parameters due to the complexity of the biological systems they represent. Because of the multiplicity of solutions, it is difficult to extract general dynamical rules. In the present work, we integrate both approaches and reduce a detailed biophysical model to sufficiently low-dimensional equations, and thus maintaining the advantages of a generic model. We propose, at the single cell level, a unified framework of different pathological activities that are seizures, depolarization block, and sustained ictal activity.

2021 ◽  
Innocent TAGNE NKOUNGA ◽  
Francois Marie MOUKAM KAKMENI ◽  
Baba Issa CAMARA ◽  

Abstract A birhythmic conductance-based neuronal model with fast and slow variables is proposed to generate and control the coexistence of two different attracting modes in amplitudes and frequencies. However, periodic bursting, chaotic spiking and bursting haven’t been clearly observed there. The control of bistability is investigated in a three-dimensional birhythmic conductance-based neuronal model. We consider slow processes in neuron materialized by an adaptation variable coupled to system in the presence of an externalinusoidal current applied. By using the harmonic balance method, we obtain the frequency-response curve in which membrane potential resonance with his corresponding frequency are control by varying a specific parameter. At the resonance frequency, bifurcation and lyapunov exponent diagrams versus a control parameter are obtained. They reveal, a coexistence of two different complex attractors namely periodic and chaotic spiking, periodic and chaotic bursting. By using the control parameter as the slow variable, the system can switch from bistable to monostable behavior. This is done by destroying subthreshold (small) oscillation of the neuron. The role of adaptation variable in neuron system is then to filtered many existing electrical processes and permit to adapt the system by the multiple transitions states in the chosen electrical mode. A fairly good agreement is observed between analytical and numerical results.

Fan Yang ◽  
Yanming Sun ◽  
Yuan Zhang ◽  
Tao Wang

This study aims to analyze the development trend of the manufacturing industry transformation and upgrading in the Guangdong–Hong Kong–Macao Greater Bay Area (2008–2018). On the basis of synergetics, the order parameter method of factor analysis is used to study these factors. The results show that: (1) There are five slow variable factors, such as intelligent manufacturing industry, technological innovation, scale agglomeration, market demand, and fixed asset investment, which are important power sources of the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry in Greater Bay Area. The development of these factors is relatively mature, and they cooperate with each other. (2) Similar to a fast variable of manufacturing development ecology, green development is an important coordinating factor in removing bottlenecks. Finally, suggestions for the development of the transformation and upgrading of the manufacturing industry are put forward.

Mathematics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 1329
Lev Ryashko ◽  
Dmitri V. Alexandrov ◽  
Irina Bashkirtseva

A problem of the noise-induced generation and shifts of phantom attractors in nonlinear dynamical systems is considered. On the basis of the model describing interaction of the climate and vegetation we study the probabilistic mechanisms of noise-induced systematic shifts in global temperature both upward (“warming”) and downward (“freezing”). These shifts are associated with changes in the area of Earth covered by vegetation. The mathematical study of these noise-induced phenomena is performed within the framework of the stochastic theory of phantom attractors in slow-fast systems. We give a theoretical description of stochastic generation and shifts of phantom attractors based on the method of freezing a slow variable and averaging a fast one. The probabilistic mechanisms of oppositely directed shifts caused by additive and multiplicative noise are discussed.

2021 ◽  
Yuye Li ◽  
Huaguang Gu ◽  
Yanbing Jia ◽  
Kaihua Ma

Abstract Neuronal bursting is an electrophysiological behavior participating in physiological or pathological functions and a complex nonlinear alternating between burst and quiescent state modulated by slow variables. Identification of dynamics of bursting modulated by two slow variables is still an open problem. In the present paper, a novel fast-slow variable dissection method with two slow variables is proposed to analyze the complex bursting in a 4-dimensional neuronal model to describe bursting associated with pathological pain. The lumenal (Clum) and intracellular (Cin) calcium concentrations are the slowest variables respectively in the quiescent state and burst duration. Questions encountered when the traditional method with one low variable is used. When Clum is taken as slow variable, the burst is successfully identified to terminate near the saddle-homoclinic bifurcation point of the fast subsystem and begin not from the saddle-node bifurcation. With Cin chosen as slow variable, Clum value of initiation point is far from the saddle-node bifurcation point, due to Clum not contained in the equation of membrane potential. To overcome this problem, both Cin and Clum are regarded as slow variables, the two-dimensional fast subsystem exhibits a saddle-node bifurcation point, which is extended to a saddle-node bifurcation curve by introducing Clum dimension. Then, the initial point of burst is successfully identified to be near the saddle-node bifurcation curve. The results present a feasible method for fast-slow variable dissection and deep understanding to the complex bursting behavior with two slow variables, which is helpful for the modulation to pathological pain.

2021 ◽  
Vol 31 (06) ◽  
pp. 2150096
Kaihua Ma ◽  
Huaguang Gu ◽  
Zhiguo Zhao

The identification of nonlinear dynamics of bursting patterns related to multiple time scales and pathology of brain tissues is still an open problem. In the present paper, representative cases of bursting related to seizure (SZ) and spreading depression (SD) simulated in a theoretical model are analyzed. When the fast–slow variable dissection method with only one slow variable (extracellular potassium concentration, [Formula: see text]) taken as the bifurcation parameter of the fast subsystem is used, the mismatch between bifurcation points of the fast subsystem and the beginning and ending phases of burst appears. To overcome this problem, both slow variables [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] (intracellular sodium concentration) are regarded as bifurcation parameters of the fast subsystem, which exhibits three codimension-2 bifurcation points and multiple codimension-1 bifurcation curves containing the saddle-node bifurcation on an invariant cycle (SNIC), the supercritical Hopf bifurcation (the border between spiking and the depolarization block), and the saddle homoclinic (HC) bifurcation. The bursting patterns for SD are related to the Hopf bifurcation and the depolarization block while for SZ to SNIC. Furthermore, at the intersection points between the bursting trajectory and the bifurcation curves in plane ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text]), the initial or termination phases of burst match the SNIC or HC point well or the Hopf point to a certain extent due to the slow passage effect, showing that the fast–slow variable dissection method with suitable process is still effective to analyze bursting activities. The results present the complex bifurcations underlying the bursting patterns and a proper performing process for the fast–slow variable dissection with two slow variables, which are helpful for modulation to bursting patterns related to brain disfunction.

2021 ◽  
Vol 183 (2) ◽  
Maximilian Engel ◽  
Marios Antonios Gkogkas ◽  
Christian Kuehn

AbstractIn this paper we study coupled fast-slow ordinary differential equations (ODEs) with small time scale separation parameter $$\varepsilon $$ ε such that, for every fixed value of the slow variable, the fast dynamics are sufficiently chaotic with ergodic invariant measure. Convergence of the slow process to the solution of a homogenized stochastic differential equation (SDE) in the limit $$\varepsilon $$ ε to zero, with explicit formulas for drift and diffusion coefficients, has so far only been obtained for the case that the fast dynamics evolve independently. In this paper we give sufficient conditions for the convergence of the first moments of the slow variable in the coupled case. Our proof is based upon a new method of stochastic regularization and functional-analytical techniques combined via a double limit procedure involving a zero-noise limit as well as considering $$\varepsilon $$ ε to zero. We also give exact formulas for the drift and diffusion coefficients for the limiting SDE. As a main application of our theory, we study weakly-coupled systems, where the coupling only occurs in lower time scales.

2021 ◽  
Vol 0 (0) ◽  
Leopold Lautsch ◽  
Thomas Richter

Abstract We consider systems of ordinary differential equations with multiple scales in time. In general, we are interested in the long time horizon of a slow variable that is coupled to solution components that act on a fast scale. Although the fast scale variables are essential for the dynamics of the coupled problem, they are often of no interest in themselves. Recently, we have proposed a temporal multiscale approach that fits into the framework of the heterogeneous multiscale method and that allows for efficient simulations with significant speedups. Fast and slow scales are decoupled by introducing local averages and by replacing fast scale contributions by localized periodic-in-time problems. Here, we generalize this multiscale approach to a larger class of problems, but in particular, we derive an a posteriori error estimator based on the dual weighted residual method that allows for a splitting of the error into averaging error, error on the slow scale and error on the fast scale. We demonstrate the accuracy of the error estimator and also its use for adaptive control of a numerical multiscale scheme.

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