cover cropping
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2022 ◽  
Vol 326 ◽  
pp. 107813
Author(s):  
Giovani Preza-Fontes ◽  
Laura E. Christianson ◽  
Kristin Greer ◽  
Rabin Bhattarai ◽  
Cameron M. Pittelkow

2022 ◽  
Vol 326 ◽  
pp. 107803
Author(s):  
Linh T.T. Nguyen ◽  
Kaleb A. Ortner ◽  
Lisa K. Tiemann ◽  
Karen A. Renner ◽  
Alexandra N. Kravchenko

2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Alyssa DeVincentis ◽  
Samuel Sandoval Solis ◽  
Sloane Rice ◽  
Daniele Zaccaria ◽  
Richard Snyder ◽  
...  

As fresh water supplies become more unreliable, variable and expensive, the water-related implications of sustainable agriculture practices such as cover cropping are drawing increasing attention from California's agricultural communities. However, the adoption of winter cover cropping remains limited among specialty crop growers who face uncertainty regarding the water use of this practice. To investigate how winter cover crops affect soil water and evapotranspiration on farm fields, we studied three systems that span climatic and farming conditions in California's Central Valley: processing tomato fields with cover crop, almond orchards with cover crop, and almond orchards with native vegetation. From 2016 to 2019, we collected soil moisture data (3 years of neutron hydroprobe and gravimetric tests at 10 field sites) and evapotranspiration measurements (2 years at two of 10 sites) in winter cover cropped and control (clean-cultivated, bare ground) plots during winter months. Generally, there were not significant differences in soil moisture between cover cropped and control fields throughout or at the end of the winter seasons, while evapo-transpirative losses due to winter cover crops were negligible relative to clean-cultivated soil. Our results suggest that winter cover crops in the Central Valley may break even in terms of actual consumptive water use. California growers of high-value specialty crops can likely adopt winter cover cropping without altering their irrigation plans and management practices.


2022 ◽  
pp. 1-9
Author(s):  
Alyssa DeVincentis ◽  
Samuel Sandoval Solis ◽  
Sloane Rice ◽  
Daniele Zaccaria ◽  
Richard Snyder ◽  
...  

As fresh water supplies become more unreliable, variable and expensive, the water-related implications of sustainable agriculture practices such as cover cropping are drawing increasing attention from California's agricultural communities. However, the adoption of winter cover cropping remains limited among specialty crop growers who face uncertainty regarding the water use of this practice. To investigate how winter cover crops affect soil water and evapotranspiration on farm fields, we studied three systems that span climatic and farming conditions in California's Central Valley: processing tomato fields with cover crop, almond orchards with cover crop, and almond orchards with native vegetation. From 2016 to 2019, we collected soil moisture data (3 years of neutron hydroprobe and gravimetric tests at 10 field sites) and evapotranspiration measurements (2 years at two of 10 sites) in winter cover cropped and control (clean-cultivated, bare ground) plots during winter months. Generally, there were not significant differences in soil moisture between cover cropped and control fields throughout or at the end of the winter seasons, while evapo-transpirative losses due to winter cover crops were negligible relative to clean-cultivated soil. Our results suggest that winter cover crops in the Central Valley may break even in terms of actual consumptive water use. California growers of high-value specialty crops can likely adopt winter cover cropping without altering their irrigation plans and management practices.


Geoderma ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 406 ◽  
pp. 115497
Author(s):  
Vesh R. Thapa ◽  
Rajan Ghimire ◽  
Dawn VanLeeuwen ◽  
Verónica Acosta-Martínez ◽  
Manoj Shukla

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Author(s):  
Munyaradzi Chitakira ◽  
Nombuso Z. P. Ngcobo

Climate variability and change impact significantly on food security and the livelihoods of smallholder farmers making it necessary for the farmers to prioritize investment in adaptation and mitigation approaches, such as climate smart agriculture, to enhance resilience. Climate smart agriculture approaches have been adopted in many countries around the world to address the adverse impacts of climate change on agricultural production. There is limited information about climate smart agriculture adoption by peri-urban farmers in developing countries. The present study aimed to assess the extent to which agricultural activities by smallholder crop farmers in the City of Tshwane Metropolitan Municipality in Gauteng province of South Africa are climate smart, and to establish the sustainable measures to be put in place to enhance the adoption of climate smart agriculture. The study made use of a mixed method design combining qualitative and quantitative approaches. A combination of simple random and non-probability sampling techniques was employed to select the study locations and identify respondents. A sample of thirty-six farmers were selected for the study. The main findings revealed overwhelming awareness of climate change and the impacts thereof on crop productivity and yields. However, the respondents' level of awareness of climate smart agriculture technologies was generally low. Despite the lack of knowledge of climate smart agriculture practices, the farmers were, to an extent, utilizing adaptation mechanisms acquired from indigenous systems or scientific knowledge. Examples of these practices include mulching, cover cropping, crop rotation and use of crop varieties. The study concludes that much more can be done to scale up the uptake of climate smart agriculture in the Gauteng province. The study recommends formal and informal strategies including one-on-one extension programs to raise the awareness of climate smart agriculture technologies appropriate to the unique conditions of the farmers.


Author(s):  
J.D. Duff ◽  
M.C. Firrell

Brassica biofumigant cover crops are being increasingly considered in vegetable crop rotations as part of an integrated disease management strategy and simply as a cover cropping choice. Nine biofumigant varieties were assessed to see if they could be grown year-round in the Lockyer Valley South East Queensland region, for yield, days to incorporation and glucosinolate concentrations, as well as efficacy against 3 soilborne pathogens; Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium rolfsii and Macrophomina phaseolina. The fastest growing brassica biofumigant was BQ Mulch which reached 25% flowering in 36 and 59 days from planting to incorporation with a summer and winter planting respectively. Nemcon and Nemclear took the longest to incorporation when planted in summer, 101 days and failed to flower, while Caliente, Tillage Radish and Biofum reached 25% flowering and incorporation in 98 days when planted in winter. BQ Mulch produced the least amount of biomass, 30.93 t/ha fresh weight and 2.92 t/ha dry weight with a summer planting. Biofum producing the greatest amount of biomass, 185.76 t/ha fresh weight and 17.34 t/ha dry weight with a summer and winter planting respectively. Most varieties produced more total glucosinolates during summer compared to winter. Caliente produced the highest levels of Total GSLs with 53.47 µmol/g DW in summer compared to 23.78 µmol/g DW in winter. This was reflected in their efficacy against the soilborne pathogens. Caliente and Mustclean were more efficacious at controlling Macrophomina and Sclerotinia in summer compared to winter while all varieties were more efficacious at controlling Sclerotinia with a summer planting compared to a winter planting.


2021 ◽  
Vol 41 (6) ◽  
Author(s):  
Aurelio Scavo ◽  
Alessia Restuccia ◽  
Cristina Abbate ◽  
Sara Lombardo ◽  
Stefania Fontanazza ◽  
...  

AbstractThe soils of Mediterranean semiarid environments are commonly characterized by low levels of organic matter and mineral elements, as well as severe weed infestations, which, taken together, cause an intensive use of auxiliary inputs (tillage, fertilizers, herbicides). Although cover crops are recognized to sustainably improve soil health, the impact of Trifolium subterraneum L. cover cropping needs specific attention. This research investigates for the first time the effects over 4 years of T. subterraneum and spontaneous flora cover crops, after either incorporating their dead mulches into the soil or leaving them on the soil surface, on soil organic matter (SOM), macroelements, mineral nitrogen, microelements, and weed seedbank dynamics as indicators of soil quality in an apricot orchard. Compared to a conventional management control, the T. subterraneum cover crop with the burying of dead mulch into the soil increased the amount of SOM (+ 15%), ammoniacal (+ 194%) and nitric (+ 308%) nitrogen, assimilable P2O5 (+ 5%), exchangeable K2O (+ 14%), exchangeable Na (+ 32%), exchangeable K (+ 16%), Fe (+ 15%), Mn (+ 28%), Zn (+ 36%), and Cu (+ 24%), while it decreased the weed seedbank size (‒ 54%) and enhanced weed biodiversity. These findings suggest that T. subterraneum cover cropping may be an environment-friendly tool to enhance soil quality and limit auxiliary input supply in Mediterranean orchards.


Agronomy ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (11) ◽  
pp. 2104
Author(s):  
Aurelio Scavo ◽  
Giovanni Mauromicale

In the face of yield losses caused by weeds, especially in low-input agricultural systems, and environmental pollution due to the excessive use of synthetic herbicides, sustainable weed management has become mandatory. To address these issues, allelopathy, i.e., the biochemical phenomenon of chemical interactions between plants through the release of secondary metabolites into the environment, is gaining popularity. Although many important crops are known for their allelopathic potential, farmers are still reluctant to use such knowledge practically. It is therefore important to assist advisors and farmers in assessing whether allelopathy can be effectively implemented into an eco-friendly weed management strategy. Here, we aim to give a comprehensive and updated review on the herbicidal potential of allelopathy. The major findings are the following: (1) Crops from different botanical families show allelopathic properties and can be cultivated alone or in combination with other non-allelopathic crops. (2) Many allelopathic tools can be adopted (crop rotation, intercropping, cover cropping as living or dead mulches, green manuring, use of allelochemical-based bioherbicides). (3) These methods are highly flexible and feature increased efficiency when combined into an integrated weed management strategy. (4) Recent advances in the chemistry of allelopathy are facilitating the use of allelochemicals for bioherbicide production. (5) Several biotechnologies, such as stress induction and genetic engineering techniques, can enhance the allelopathic potential of crops or introduce allelopathic traits de novo. This review shows how important the role of allelopathy for sustainable weed management is and, at the same time, indicates the need for field experiments, mainly under an integrated approach. Finally, we recommend the combination of transgenic allelopathy with the aforementioned allelopathic tools to increase the weed-suppressive efficacy of allelopathy.


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