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2022 ◽  
Vol 124 ◽  
pp. 107251
Qiming Wang ◽  
Yuwan Tang ◽  
Yaxuan Yang ◽  
Lin Lei ◽  
Xiaojuan Lei ◽  

Life ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 120
Katharina Geistlinger ◽  
Jana D. R. Schmidt ◽  
Eric Beitz

(1) Background: Human aquaporin-9 (AQP9) conducts several small uncharged metabolites, such as glycerol, urea, and lactic acid. Certain brain tumors were shown to upregulate AQP9 expression, and the putative increase in lactic acid permeability was assigned to severity. (2) Methods: We expressed AQP9 and human monocarboxylate transporter 1 (MCT1) in yeast to determine the uptake rates and accumulation of radiolabeled l-lactate/l-lactic acid in different external pH conditions. (3) Results: The AQP9-mediated uptake of l-lactic acid was slow compared to MCT1 at neutral and slightly acidic pH, due to low concentrations of the neutral substrate species. At a pH corresponding to the pKa of l-lactic acid, uptake via AQP9 was faster than via MCT1. Substrate accumulation was fundamentally different between AQP9 and MCT1. With MCT1, an equilibrium was reached, at which the intracellular and extracellular l-lactate/H+ concentrations were balanced. Uptake via AQP9 was linear, theoretically yielding orders of magnitude of higher substrate accumulation than MCT1. (4) Conclusions: The selectivity of AQP9 for neutral l-lactic acid establishes an ion trap for l-lactate after dissociation. This may be physiologically relevant if the transmembrane proton gradient is steep, and AQP9 acts as the sole uptake path on at least one side of a polarized cell.

2022 ◽  
Toshihisa Ohshima ◽  
Taketo Ohmori ◽  
Masaki Tanaka

Abstract L-Arginine dehydrogenase (L-ArgDH, EC is an amino acid dehydrogenase which catalyzes the reversible oxidative deamination of L-arginine to the oxo analog in the presence of NADP. Although the enzyme activity is detected in the cell extract of Pseudomonas aruginosa , the purification and characterization of the enzyme have not been achieved to date. We here found the gene homolog of L-ArgDH in genome data of Pseudomonas veronii and succeeded in expression of P. veronii JCM11942 gene in E. coli. The gene product exhibited strong NADP-dependent L-ArgDH activity. The crude enzyme was unstable under neutral pH conditions, but was markedly stabilized by the addition of 10% glycerol. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity through a single Ni-chelate affinity ch romatography step and consisted of a homodimeric protein with a molecular mass of about 65 kDa. The enzyme selectively catalyzed l-arginine oxidation in the presence of NADP with maximal activity at pH 9.5. The apparent K m values for l-arginine and NADP were 2.5 and 0.21 mM, respectively. The nucleotide sequence coding the enzyme gene ( was determined and the amino acid sequence was deduced from the nucleotide sequence. As an application of the enzyme, simple colorimetric microassay for L-arginine using the enzyme was achieved.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 409
Maiko Uehara ◽  
Chinatsu Takasaki ◽  
Satoshi Wakita ◽  
Yasusato Sugahara ◽  
Eri Tabata ◽  

Chitooligosaccharides, the degradation products of chitin and chitosan, possess anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. The enzymatic production of chitooligosaccharides may increase the interest in their potential biomedical or agricultural usability in terms of the safety and simplicity of the manufacturing process. Crab-eating monkey acidic chitinase (CHIA) is an enzyme with robust activity in various environments. Here, we report the efficient degradation of chitin and chitosan by monkey CHIA under acidic and high-temperature conditions. Monkey CHIA hydrolyzed α-chitin at 50 °C, producing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) dimers more efficiently than at 37 °C. Moreover, the degradation rate increased with a longer incubation time (up to 72 h) without the inactivation of the enzyme. Five substrates (α-chitin, colloidal chitin, P-chitin, block-type, and random-type chitosan substrates) were exposed to monkey CHIS at pH 2.0 or pH 5.0 at 50 °C. P-chitin and random-type chitosan appeared to be the best sources of GlcNAc dimers and broad-scale chitooligosaccharides, respectively. In addition, the pattern of the products from the block-type chitosan was different between pH conditions (pH 2.0 and pH 5.0). Thus, monkey CHIA can degrade chitin and chitosan efficiently without inactivation under high-temperature or low pH conditions. Our results show that certain chitooligosaccharides are enriched by using different substrates under different conditions. Therefore, the reaction conditions can be adjusted to obtain desired oligomers. Crab-eating monkey CHIA can potentially become an efficient tool in producing chitooligosaccharide sets for agricultural and biomedical purposes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yufeng Chen ◽  
Xiaojing Gao ◽  
Shucheng Liu ◽  
Qiuxing Cai ◽  
Lijun Wu ◽  

In this work, the lactoferrin (LF) was glycosylated by dextran (molecular weight 10, 40, and 70 kDa, LF 10K, LF 40K, and LF 70K) via Maillard reaction as a stabilizer to establish zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles and encapsulate 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF). Three zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles (79.27–87.24 nm) with low turbidity (<0.220) and polydispersity index (PDI) (<0.230) were successfully established by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. Compared with zein/LF nanoparticles, zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles further increased stability to ionic strength (0–500 mM NaCl) at low pH conditions. Zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles had nanoscale spherical shape and glycosylated LF changed surface morphology of zein nanoparticles. Besides, encapsulated 7,8-DHF exhibited an amorphous state inside zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles. Most importantly, zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles had good water redispersibility, high encapsulation efficiency (above 98.50%), favorable storage stability, and bioaccessibility for 7,8-DHF, particularly LF 40K. Collectively, the above research provides a theoretical reference for the application of zein-based delivery systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Anella Saggese ◽  
Ylenia De Luca ◽  
Loredana Baccigalupi ◽  
Ezio Ricca

Abstract Background Members of the Bacillus genus produce a large variety of antimicrobial peptides including linear or cyclic lipopeptides and thiopeptides, that often have a broad spectrum of action against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. We have recently reported that SF214, a marine isolated strain of Bacillus pumilus, produces two different antimicrobials specifically active against either Staphylococcus aureus or Listeria monocytogenes. The anti-Staphylococcus molecule has been previously characterized as a pumilacidin, a nonribosomally synthesized lipopetide composed of a mixture of cyclic heptapeptides linked to fatty acids of variable length. Results Our analysis on the anti-Listeria molecule of B. pumilus SF214 indicated that it is a peptide slightly smaller than 10 kDa, produced during the exponential phase of growth, stable at a wide range of pH conditions and resistant to various chemical treatments. The peptide showed a lytic activity against growing but not resting cells of Listeria monocytogenes and appeared extremely specific being inactive also against L. innocua, a close relative of L. monocytogenes. Conclusions These findings indicate that the B. pumilus peptide is unusual with respect to other antimicrobials both for its time of synthesis and secretion and for its strict specificity against L. monocytogenes. Such specificity, together with its stability, propose this new antimicrobial as a tool for potential biotechnological applications in the fight against the dangerous food-borne pathogen L. monocytogenes.

2022 ◽  
Vol 61 (1) ◽  
pp. 55-65
María de Jesús González-Guadarrama ◽  
Silvia Elena Castillo-Blum ◽  
María Aurora Armienta

  Abstract 22 This work discusses the importance of organic matter, specifically Aquatic Humic Substances (SHA) 23 within the speciation and distribution of metals within an aquatic system, in this case Xochimilco 24 Lake, a site with great ecological importance. This lake is the natural habitat of the endemic species 25 “axolotl” (ajolote). In this research, complexation reactions between SHA and metals (Cu, Mn, Pb 26 and Zn) were carried out under different reaction conditions, the source of AHS was water samples 27 taken in Xochimilco Lake in presence and absence of pH buffer dissolution and varying the 28 concentration of metals. The results show that there is a direct competition between the major 29 elements and trace elements to react with the AHS. Under the pH conditions of Xochimilco Lake 30 complexes formation is possible. 31

2021 ◽  
Sarah Täuber ◽  
Luisa Blöbaum ◽  
Valentin Steier ◽  
Marco Oldiges ◽  
Alexander Grünberger

In large-scale bioreactors, gradients in cultivation parameters such as oxygen, substrate and pH result in fluctuating environments. pH fluctuations were identified as a critical parameter for bioprocess performance. Traditionally, scale-down systems at the laboratory scale are used to analyze the effects of fluctuating pH values on strain and thus process performance. Here, we demonstrate the application of dynamic microfluidic single-cell cultivation (dMSCC) as a novel scale-down system for the characterization of Corynebacterium glutamicum growth using oscillating pH conditions as a model parameter. A detailed comparison between two-compartment reactor (two-CR) scale-down experiments and dMSCC was performed for one specific pH oscillation between reference pH 7 (~8 min) and disturbed pH 6 (~2 min). Similar reductions in growth rates were observed in both systems (dMSCC 21% and two-CR 27%). Afterward, systematic experiments at different symmetric and asymmetric pH oscillations between pH ranges of 4 −6 and 8 −11 and different intervals from 1 minute to 20 minutes, were performed to demonstrate the unique application range and throughput of the dMSCC system. Finally, the strength of the dMSCC application was demonstrated by mimicking fluctuating environmental conditions within large-scale bioprocesses, which is difficult to conduct using two-CRs.

Membranes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 24
Abdul Latif Ahmad ◽  
Oluwasola Idowu Ebenezer ◽  
Noor Fazliani Shoparwe ◽  
Suzylawati Ismail

The application of polymer inclusion membranes (PIMs) for the aquatic remediation of several heavy metals, dyes, and nutrients has been extensively studied. However, its application in treating organic compounds such as Ibuprofen, an emerging pharmaceutical contaminant that poses potential environmental problems, has not been explored satisfactorily. Therefore, graphene oxide (GO) doped PIMs were fabricated, characterized, and applied to extract aqueous Ibuprofen at varied pH conditions. The doped PIMs were synthesized using a low concentration of Aliquat 336 as carrier and 0, 0.15, 0.45, and 0.75% GO as nanoparticles in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) base polymer without adding any plasticizer. The synthesized PIM was characterized by SEM, FTIR, physical, and chemical stability. The GO doped PIM was well plasticized and had an optimal Ibuprofen extraction efficiency of about 84% at pH of 10 and 0.75% GO concentration. Furthermore, the GO doped PIM’s chemical stability indicates better stability in acidic solution than in the alkaline solution. This study demonstrates that the graphene oxide-doped PIM significantly enhanced the extraction of Ibuprofen at a low concentration. However, further research is required to improve its stability and efficiency for the remediation of the ubiquitous Ibuprofen in the aquatic environment.

Polymers ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 37
Eun-Deok Jo ◽  
Sang-Bae Lee ◽  
Chung-Min Kang ◽  
Kwang-Mahn Kim ◽  
Jae-Sung Kwon

Changes in intraoral pH can cause changes in the chemical decomposition and surface properties of treated resin-based pits and fissure sealants (sealant). The purpose of this study is to evaluate the release of bisphenol A (BPA) from sealants under three different pH conditions over time. The test specimen was applied with 6 sealants 5 mg each on a glass plate (10 × 10 mm) and photopolymerized. The samples were immersed for 10 min, 1 h, and 24 h in solutions of pH 3.0, 6.5, and 10.0 at 37 °C. BPA release was measured using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer. A statistical analysis was performed by two-way ANOVA and one-way ANOVA to verify the effect of pH conditions and time on BPA release. The BPA concentration in the pH 3.0 group was higher at all points than with pH 6.5 and pH 10.0 (p < 0.05), and gradually increased over time (p < 0.05). As a result, it was confirmed that low pH negatively influences BPA release. Therefore, frequent exposure to low pH due to the consumption of various beverages after sealant treatment can negatively affect the sealant’s chemical stability in the oral cavity.

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