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2022 ◽  
Vol 2 (1) ◽  
pp. 93-100

Background/Aim: This study aimed to present a rare case of fibrous dysplasia (FD) in a healthy young adult man with a concomitant osteoporotic vertebral compression fracture. FD is a benign lesion of the bone characterized by replacement of the medullary component with fibro-osseous tissue that contains abnormally arranged trabeculae of immature woven bone. Recently it has been reported that several bone tumors including FD express the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL). Therefore, we hypothesized that FD contributed to osteoporosis, linked by the RANK-RANKL pathway of osteoclastogenesis. Case Report: We report the case of a healthy man with monostotic femoral fibrous dysplasia (FD) with concomitant 7th thoracic vertebra compression fracture due to osteoporosis [young adult mean (YAM) was 79% in bone mineral density (BMD)]. After curettage of the FD, artificial bone grafting in the cavity, and administration of alendronate sodium, BMD improved considerably within 9 months. FD is a benign bone condition in which abnormal fibrous tissue replaces normal bone. The axis of the receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B (RANK) and its ligand (RANKL) has been implicated in osteoporosis pathogenesis. RANKL immunohistochemical staining was performed, and strong staining of stromal cells was observed compared to other FD cases that showed weak to moderate staining. Conclusion: The presence of FD might have contributed to the low BMD due to the RANK-RANKL axis acting as osteoclastogenesis stimulator.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (4) ◽  
pp. 433-7
Ferry Sandra ◽  
Jennifer Putri ◽  
Hilary Limen ◽  
Blanca Sarizta

BACKGROUND: The potential of the caffeic acid in other important Receptor Activator Nuclear Factor kB Ligand (RANKL)-Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)a-induced osteoclastogenic signaling pathways has not been known. Therefore, the current study was conducted to explore as well as to understand the inhibition potential of caffeic acid.METHODS: RAW264.7 cells were cultured, treated with caffeic acid, RANKL and TNFa. Tartrate Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP) staining was performed to detect TRAP+ osteoclast-like polynuclear cells. To detect the activity of p44/42 Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK), Akt, and Transforming Growth Factor-β-activated Kinase (TAK)1, the phosphorylated forms of the proteins were investigated with the immunoblotting assay.RESULTS: Pre-treatment of caffeic acid inhibited the RANKL and TNFa-induced differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into TRAP+ osteoclast-like polynuclear cells. RANKL and TNFa induced phosphorylation of p44/42 MAPK at Thr202/Tyr204, phosphorylation of Akt at both Ser473 and Thr308 and phosphorylation of TAK1 at Ser412. Pre-treatment with caffeic acid prior to the RANKL and TNFa induction, inhibited the phosphorylation of MAPK, and TAK1, but not Akt.CONCLUSION: Caffeic acid might regulate the RANKL-TNFa-induced osteoclastogenic pathway in RAW264.7 by targeting TAK1, which later activation of p44/42 MAPK was abolished.KEYWORDS: caffeic acid, osteoclastogenesis, p44/42, Erk1/2, Akt, TAK1, RAW264.7 

Diagnostics ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
pp. 62
Tobias Puengel ◽  
Beate Weber ◽  
Theresa H. Wirtz ◽  
Lukas Buendgens ◽  
Sven H. Loosen ◽  

Soluble receptor activator of nuclear factor κ B ligand (sRANKL) is a member of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily, and therefore, involved in various inflammatory processes. The role of sRANKL in the course of bone remodeling via activation of osteoclasts as well as chronic disease progression has been described extensively. However, the potential functional importance of sRANKL in critically ill or septic patients remained unknown. Therefore, we measured sRANKL serum concentrations in 303 critically ill patients, including 203 patients with sepsis and 100 with non-sepsis critical illness. Results were compared to 99 healthy controls. Strikingly, in critically ill patients sRANKL serum levels were significantly decreased at intensive care unit (ICU) admission (p = 0.011) without differences between sepsis and non-sepsis patients. Inline, sRANKL was correlated with markers of metabolic dysregulation, such as pre-existing diabetes and various adipokines (e.g., adiponectin, leptin receptor). Importantly, overall mortality of critically ill patients in a three-year follow-up was significantly associated with decreased sRANKL serum concentrations at ICU admission (p = 0.038). Therefore, our study suggests sRANKL as a biomarker in critically ill patients which is associated with poor prognosis and overall survival beyond ICU stay.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (1) ◽  
pp. 6
Yang Li ◽  
Shanshan Yang ◽  
Xin Huang ◽  
Ning Yang ◽  
Caiying Wang ◽  

Intestinal microfold (M) cells are critical for sampling antigens in the gut and initiating the intestinal mucosal immune response. In this study, we found that the oral administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) and Salmonella infection induced colitis. In the process, the expression levels of M cell differentiation-related genes were synchronized with the kinetics of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Compared to wild-type (WT) mice, MyD88−/− mice exhibited significantly lower expression levels of M cell differentiation-related genes. However, DSS induced colitis in MyD88−/− mice but failed to promote the transcription of M cell differentiation related genes. Furthermore, the receptor activator of the Nuclear Factor-κB ligand (RANKL) upregulated the transcription of M cell differentiation related genes in murine intestinal organoids prepared from both WT and MyD88−/− mice. Meanwhile, fewer changes in M cell differentiation related genes were found in MyD88−/− mice as compared to WT mice. Hence, we concluded that myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an essential molecule for colitis- and RANKL-related differentiation of M cells.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (4) ◽  
pp. 4170-4177
Mariela Geneva-Popova ◽  
Stanislava Popova ◽  

Although rheumatological diseases are widespread, they still have an unclear etiology, pathogenesis, and therapy. Researchers are looking for biomarkers associated with inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases. Serum Osteoprotegerin (s-OPG) and serum Receptor Activator of Nuclear Factor Kappa-Β Ligand (s-RANKL) have not been studied in patients with Diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis (DISH), spondylosis, ankylosing spondylitis, and gout. The aim of this study was to investigate s-OPG and s-RANKL in patients with various rheumatic diseases. Materials and methods: We studied 135 patients with rheumatic diseases, of which 55 were diagnosed with DISH, 50 with spondylosis, 23 with ankylosing spondylitis, 7 with gout, and 25 were a control group. s-OPG and s-RANKL, serum calcium, ionized calcium, serum phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, urea, creatine, and serum osteocalcin were tested using the ELISA method in the Clinical Laboratory of "St. George" University Hospital, Plovdiv. The results were processed using the statistical program SPSS ver 26, with significance p<0.05. Results: Patients with DISH and ankylosing spondylitis had higher levels of s-OPG, s-RANKL, and s-OPG/s-RANKL ratio than the control group (p<0.05). The s-OPG/s-RANKL ratio in patients with spondylosis and gout was lower than in patients with DISH and ankylosing spondylitis (p<0.05). There are strong correlations between s-OPG, s-RANKL, and the biochemical parameters related to bone metabolism (serum calcium, ionized calcium, serum phosphorus, alkaline phosphatase, uric acid, urea, creatine, and serum osteocalcin)(p <0.05). Conclusion: Our studies show that changes in bone metabolism are similar in patients with DISH and ankylosing spondylitis. Further research is needed to look for a common pathogenetic pathway linking degenerative and inflammatory rheumatic diseases of the axial skeleton.

2021 ◽  
pp. 002215542110635
Lorraine Perciliano de Faria ◽  
Giuliana Sueyoshi ◽  
Taís Carvalho de Oliveira ◽  
L. Shannon Holliday ◽  
Victor E. Arana-Chavez

Osteoclasts are cells whose main function is the resorption of bone matrix. However, several factors, including medications, can interfere with the resorption process. Alendronate (ALN), a nitrogen-containing type of bisphosphonate, and dexamethasone (DEX), a glucocorticoid, are drugs that may affect the resorption activity. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of ALN, and/or DEX on osteoclast gene expression and resorption activity in primary mouse marrow cultures stimulated with 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3, a model for the bone microenvironment. Cultures were treated only with ALN (10−5 M), DEX (10−6 M), and with a combination of both agents. Viability assays performed at days 5, 7, and 9 showed the highest number of viable cells at day 7. All the following assays were then performed at day 7 of cell culture: tartrate resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) histochemistry, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa B ligand (RANKL) immunofluorescence, osteoprotegerin (OPG), and RANKL gene expression by qPCR and resorption analysis by scanning electron microscopy. Treatment with ALN, DEX, and the combination of both did not promote significant changes in the number of TRAP+ cells, although larger giant cells were detected in groups treated with DEX. DEX treatment increased the gene expression of RANKL and reduced OPG. The treatment with ALN reduced the depth of the resorption pits, but their inhibitory effect was less effective when administered with DEX:

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (24) ◽  
pp. 7579
Sang-Yong Han ◽  
Yun-Kyung Kim

Yukmijihwang-tang (YJ) has been used to treat diabetes mellitus, renal disorders, and cognitive impairment in traditional medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the anti-osteoporotic effect of YJ on ovariectomy (OVX)-induced bone loss in a rat and receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand (RANKL)-mediated osteoclast differentiation in bone marrow macrophages (BMMs). YJ reduced the formation of tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP)-positive multinucleated cells (MNCs) in an osteoclast/osteoblast co-culture system by regulating the ratio of RANKL/osteoprotegerin (OPG) by osteoblasts. Overall, YJ reduced TRAP-positive cell formation and TRAP activity and F-actin ring formation. Analysis of the underlying mechanisms indicated that YJ inhibited the activation of the nuclear factor of activated T cell cytoplasmic 1 (NFATc1) and c-Fos, resulting in the suppression of osteoclast differentiation-related genes such as TRAP, ATPase, H+ transporting, lysosomal 38 kDa, V0 subunit d2, osteoclast-associated receptor, osteoclast-stimulatory transmembrane protein, dendritic cell-specific transmembrane protein, matrix metalloproteinase-9, cathepsin K, and calcitonin receptor. YJ also inhibited the nuclear translocation of NFATc1. Additionally, YJ markedly inhibited RANKL-induced phosphorylation of signaling pathways activated in the early stages of osteoclast differentiation including the p38, JNK, ERK, and NF-κB. Consistent with these in vitro results, the YJ-administered group showed considerably attenuated bone loss in the OVX-mediated rat model. These results provide promising evidence for the potential novel therapeutic application of YJ for bone diseases such as osteoporosis.

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