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PLoS ONE ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 16 (7) ◽  
pp. e0254714
Author(s):  
James Kenney ◽  
Abibatou Ndoye ◽  
John M. Lamar ◽  
C. Michael DiPersio

Integrin receptors for the extracellular matrix play critical roles at all stages of carcinogenesis, including tumor growth, tumor progression and metastasis. The laminin-binding integrin α3β1 is expressed in all epithelial tissues where it has important roles in cell survival, migration, proliferation, and gene expression programs during normal and pathological tissue remodeling. α3β1 signaling and adhesion functions promote tumor growth and metastasis in a number of different types of cancer cells. Previously, we used RNA interference (RNAi) technology to suppress the expression of the ITGA3 gene (encoding the α3 subunit) in the triple-negative breast cancer cell line, MDA-MB-231, thereby generating variants of this line with reduced expression of integrin α3β1. This approach revealed that α3β1 promotes pro-tumorigenic functions such as cell invasion, lung metastasis, and gene regulation. In the current study, we used CRISPR technology to knock out the ITGA3 gene in MDA-MB-231 cells, thereby ablating expression of integrin α3β1 entirely. RNA-seq analysis revealed that while the global transcriptome was altered substantially by RNAi-mediated suppression of α3β1, it was largely unaffected following CRISPR-mediated ablation of α3β1. Moreover, restoring α3β1 to the latter cells through inducible expression of α3 cDNA failed to alter gene expression substantially, suggesting that use of CRISPR to abolish α3β1 led to a decoupling of the integrin from its ability to regulate the transcriptome. Interestingly, both cell invasion in vitro and metastatic colonization in vivo were reduced when α3β1 was abolished using CRISPR, as we observed previously using RNAi to suppress α3β1. Taken together, our results show that pro-invasive/pro-metastatic roles for α3β1 are not dependent on its ability to regulate the transcriptome. Moreover, our finding that use of RNAi versus CRISPR to target α3β1 produced distinct effects on gene expression underlines the importance of using multiple approaches to obtain a complete picture of an integrin’s functions in cancer cells.


2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Author(s):  
Man Zhang ◽  
Qingqing Yang ◽  
Xi Yuan ◽  
Xiaolan Yan ◽  
Jia Wang ◽  
...  

Prunus mume is one of the most important woody perennials for edible and ornamental use. Despite a substantial variation in the flowering phenology among the P. mume germplasm resources, the genetic control for flowering time remains to be elucidated. In this study, we examined five blooming time-related traits of 235 P. mume landraces for 2 years. Based on the phenotypic data, we performed genome-wide association studies, which included a combination of marker- and gene-based association tests, and identified 1,445 candidate genes that are consistently linked with flowering time across multiple years. Furthermore, we assessed the global transcriptome change of floral buds from the two P. mume cultivars exhibiting contrasting bloom dates and detected 617 associated genes that were differentially expressed during the flowering process. By integrating a co-expression network analysis, we screened out 191 gene candidates of conserved transcriptional pattern during blooming across cultivars. Finally, we validated the temporal expression profiles of these candidates and highlighted their putative roles in regulating floral bud break and blooming time in P. mume. Our findings are important to expand the understanding of flowering time control in woody perennials and will boost the molecular breeding of novel varieties in P. mume.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Pushan Bag ◽  
Jenna Lihavainen ◽  
Nicolas Delhomme ◽  
Thomas Riquelme ◽  
Kathryn M Robinson ◽  
...  

Boreal conifers possess a tremendous ability to survive and remain evergreen during harsh winter conditions and resume growth during summer. This is enabled by coordinated regulation of major cellular functions at the level of gene expression, metabolism, and physiology. Here we present a comprehensive characterization of the annual changes in the global transcriptome of Norway spruce needles as a resource to understand needle development and acclimation processes throughout the year. In young, growing needles (May 15 to June 30), cell walls, organelles etc. were formed, and this developmental program heavily influenced the transcriptome, explained by over represented Gene Ontology (GO) categories. Later changes in gene expression were smaller but four phases were recognized: summer (July-August), autumn (September-October), winter (November-February) and spring (March-April), where over represented GO categories demonstrated how the needles acclimated to the various seasons. Changes in the seasonal global transcriptome profile were accompanied by differential expression of members of the major transcription factor families. We present a tentative model of how cellular activities are regulated over the year in needles of Norway spruce, which demonstrates the value of mining this dataset, accessible in ConGenIE together with advanced visualization tools.


2021 ◽  
Vol 2021 ◽  
pp. 1-12
Author(s):  
Yijia Zhou ◽  
Yuandong Liao ◽  
Chunyu Zhang ◽  
Junxiu Liu ◽  
Wei Wang ◽  
...  

Cancer stem cells are a key population participating in the promotion of the cervical cancer progression through interacting with cancer cells. Existing studies have preliminary revealed that cervical cancer stem cells contribute to tumor recurrence and chemotherapy resistance. However, the specific mechanisms involved in regulating cell functions remain largely unknown. Here, we analyzed published data from public databases and our global transcriptome data, thus identifying cancer-related signaling pathways and molecules. According to our findings, upregulated TAB2 was correlated to stem cell-like properties of cervical cancer. Immunohistochemistry staining of TAB2 in normal and cervical cancer tissues was performed. The cell function experiments demonstrated that knockdown of TAB2 reduced the stemness of cervical cancer cells and, importantly, prevented cervical cancer progression. Collectively, the therapeutic scheme targeting TAB2 may provide an option for overcoming tumor relapse and chemoresistance of cervical cancer via obstructing stemness maintenance.


2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Jessica Gray ◽  
P. Scott Chandry ◽  
Mandeep Kaur ◽  
Chawalit Kocharunchitt ◽  
Séamus Fanning ◽  
...  

AbstractListeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous bacterium capable of colonising and persisting within food production environments (FPEs) for many years, even decades. This ability to colonise, survive and persist within the FPEs can result in food product cross-contamination, including vulnerable products such as ready to eat food items. Various environmental and genetic elements are purported to be involved, with the ability to form biofilms being an important factor. In this study we examined various mechanisms which can influence colonisation in FPEs. The ability of isolates (n = 52) to attach and grow in biofilm was assessed, distinguishing slower biofilm formers from isolates forming biofilm more rapidly. These isolates were further assessed to determine if growth rate, exopolymeric substance production and/or the agr signalling propeptide influenced these dynamics and could promote persistence in conditions reflective of FPE. Despite no strong association with the above factors to a rapid colonisation phenotype, the global transcriptome suggested transport, energy production and metabolism genes were widely upregulated during the initial colonisation stages under nutrient limited conditions. However, the upregulation of the metabolism systems varied between isolates supporting the idea that L. monocytogenes ability to colonise the FPEs is strain-specific.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sebastian F. Beyer ◽  
Paloma Sánchez Bel ◽  
Victor Flors ◽  
Holger Schutheiss ◽  
Uwe Conrath ◽  
...  

Abstract Hormones orchestrate the physiology of organisms. Measuring the activity of defense hormone-responsive genes can help understanding immune signaling and facilitate breeding for plant health. However, different from model species like Arabidopsis, genes that respond to defense hormones salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonic acid (JA) have not been disclosed in the soybean crop. We performed global transcriptome analyses to fill this knowledge gap. Upon exogenous application, endogenous levels of SA and JA increased in leaves. SA predominantly activated genes linked to systemic acquired resistance and defense signaling whereas JA mainly activated wound response-associated genes. In general, SA-responsive genes were activated earlier than those responding to JA. Consistent with the paradigm of biotrophic pathogens predominantly activating SA responses, free SA and here identified most robust SA marker genes GmNIMIN1, GmNIMIN1.2 and GmWRK40 were induced upon inoculation with Phakopsora pachyrhizi, whereas JA marker genes did not respond to infection with the biotrophic fungus. Spodoptera exigua larvae caused a strong accumulation of JA-Ile and JA-specific mRNA transcripts of GmBPI1, GmKTI1 and GmAAT whereas neither free SA nor SA-marker gene transcripts accumulated upon insect feeding. Our study provides molecular tools for monitoring the dynamic accumulation of SA and JA, e.g. in a given stress condition.


Author(s):  
Thomas R. Reich ◽  
Christian Schwarzenbach ◽  
Juliana Brandstetter Vilar ◽  
Sven Unger ◽  
Fabian Mühlhäusler ◽  
...  

AbstractTo clarify whether differential compartmentalization of Survivin impacts temozolomide (TMZ)-triggered end points, we established a well-defined glioblastoma cell model in vitro (LN229 and A172) and in vivo, distinguishing between its nuclear and cytoplasmic localization. Expression of nuclear export sequence (NES)-mutated Survivin (SurvNESmut-GFP) led to impaired colony formation upon TMZ. This was not due to enhanced cell death but rather due to increased senescence. Nuclear-trapped Survivin reduced homologous recombination (HR)-mediated double-strand break (DSB) repair, as evaluated by γH2AX foci formation and qPCR-based HR assay leading to pronounced induction of chromosome aberrations. Opposite, clones, expressing free-shuttling cytoplasmic but not nuclear-trapped Survivin, could repair TMZ-induced DSBs and evaded senescence. Mass spectrometry-based interactomics revealed, however, no direct interaction of Survivin with any of the repair factors. The improved TMZ-triggered HR activity in Surv-GFP was associated with enhanced mRNA and stabilized RAD51 protein expression, opposite to diminished RAD51 expression in SurvNESmut cells. Notably, cytoplasmic Survivin could significantly compensate for the viability under RAD51 knockdown. Differential Survivin localization also resulted in distinctive TMZ-triggered transcriptional pathways, associated with senescence and chromosome instability as shown by global transcriptome analysis. Orthotopic LN229 xenografts, expressing SurvNESmut exhibited diminished growth and increased DNA damage upon TMZ, as manifested by PCNA and γH2AX foci expression, respectively, in brain tissue sections. Consequently, those mice lived longer. Although tumors of high-grade glioma patients expressed majorly nuclear Survivin, they exhibited rarely NES mutations which did not correlate with survival. Based on our in vitro and xenograft data, Survivin nuclear trapping would facilitate glioma response to TMZ.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
Yue Xie ◽  
Jie Xiao ◽  
Xuan Zhou ◽  
Xiaobin Gu ◽  
Ran He ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Coccidiosis caused by Eimeria stiedae is a widespread and economically significant disease of rabbits. The lack of studies on the life-cycle development and host interactions of E. stiedae at the molecular level has hampered our understanding of its pathogenesis. Methods In this study, we present a comprehensive transcriptome landscape of E. stiedae to illustrate its dynamic development from unsporulated oocysts to sporulated oocysts, merozoites, and gametocytes, and to identify genes related to parasite-host interactions during parasitism using combined PacBio single-molecule real-time and Illumina RNA sequencing followed by bioinformatics analysis and qRT-PCR validation. Results In total, 12,582 non-redundant full-length transcripts were generated with an average length of 1808 bp from the life-cycle stages of E. stiedae. Pairwise comparisons between stages revealed 8775 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) showing highly significant description changes, which compiled a snapshot of the mechanisms underlining asexual and sexual biology of E. stiedae including oocyst sporulation between unsporulated and sporulated oocysts; merozoite replication between sporulated oocysts and merozoites; and gametophyte development and gamete generation between merozoites and gametocytes. Further, 248 DEGs were grouped into nine series clusters and five groups by expression patterns, and showed that parasite–host interaction-related genes predominated in merozoites and gametocytes and were mostly involved in steroid biosynthesis and lipid metabolism and carboxylic acid. Additionally, co-expression analyses identified genes associated with development and host invasion in unsporulated and sporulated oocysts and immune interactions during gametocyte parasitism. Conclusions This is the first study, to our knowledge, to use the global transcriptome profiles to decipher molecular changes across the E. stiedae life cycle, and these results not only provide important information for the molecular characterization of E. stiedae, but also offer valuable resources to study other apicomplexan parasites with veterinary and public significance. Graphic Abstract


2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (6) ◽  
pp. 413
Author(s):  
Pooja Soni ◽  
Arun K. Pandey ◽  
Spurthi N. Nayak ◽  
Manish K. Pandey ◽  
Priya Tolani ◽  
...  

Pre-harvest aflatoxin contamination (PAC) in groundnut is a serious quality concern globally, and drought stress before harvest further exacerbate its intensity, leading to the deterioration of produce quality. Understanding the host–pathogen interaction and identifying the candidate genes responsible for resistance to PAC will provide insights into the defense mechanism of the groundnut. In this context, about 971.63 million reads have been generated from 16 RNA samples under controlled and Aspergillus flavus infected conditions, from one susceptible and seven resistant genotypes. The RNA-seq analysis identified 45,336 genome-wide transcripts under control and infected conditions. This study identified 57 transcription factor (TF) families with major contributions from 6570 genes coding for bHLH (719), MYB-related (479), NAC (437), FAR1 family protein (320), and a few other families. In the host (groundnut), defense-related genes such as senescence-associated proteins, resveratrol synthase, seed linoleate, pathogenesis-related proteins, peroxidases, glutathione-S-transferases, chalcone synthase, ABA-responsive gene, and chitinases were found to be differentially expressed among resistant genotypes as compared to susceptible genotypes. This study also indicated the vital role of ABA-responsive ABR17, which co-regulates the genes of ABA responsive elements during drought stress, while providing resistance against A. flavus infection. It belongs to the PR-10 class and is also present in several plant–pathogen interactions.


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