tumour suppressor gene
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2022 ◽  
Malvika Sudhakar ◽  
Raghunathan Rengaswamy ◽  
Karthik Raman

The progression of tumorigenesis starts with a few mutational and structural driver events in the cell. Various cohort-based computational tools exist to identify driver genes but require a large number of samples to produce reliable results. Many studies use different methods to identify driver mutations/genes from mutations that have no impact on tumour progression; however, a small fraction of patients show no mutational events in any known driver genes. Current unsupervised methods map somatic and expression data onto a network to identify the perturbation in the network. Our method is the first machine learning model to classify genes as tumour suppressor gene (TSG), oncogene (OG) or neutral, thus assigning the functional impact of the gene in the patient. In this study, we develop a multi-omic approach, PIVOT (Personalised Identification of driVer OGs and TSGs), to train on experimentally or computationally validated mutational and structural driver events. Given the lack of any gold standards for the identification of personalised driver genes, we label the data using four strategies and, based on classification metrics, show gene-based labelling strategies perform best. We build different models using SNV, RNA, and multi-omic features to be used based on the data available. Our models trained on multi-omic data improved predictions compared to mutation and expression data, achieving an accuracy >0.99 for BRCA, LUAD and COAD datasets. We show network and expression-based features contribute the most to PIVOT. Our predictions on BRCA, COAD and LUAD cancer types reveal commonly altered genes such as TP53, and PIK3CA, which are predicted drivers for multiple cancer types. Along with known driver genes, our models also identify new driver genes such as PRKCA, SOX9 and PSMD4. Our multi-omic model labels both CNV and mutations with a more considerable contribution by CNV alterations. While predicting labels for genes mutated in multiple samples, we also label rare driver events occurring in as few as one sample. We also identify genes with dual roles within the same cancer type. Overall, PIVOT labels personalised driver genes as TSGs and OGs and also identifies rare driver genes. PIVOT is available at https://github.com/RamanLab/PIVOT.

2021 ◽  
Mohammed Bergoug ◽  
Christine Mosrin ◽  
Fabienne Godin ◽  
Michel Doudeau ◽  
Iva Sosic ◽  

Neurofibromin (Nf1) is a large multidomain protein encoded by the tumour-suppressor gene NF1. NF1 is mutated in a frequently occurring genetic disease, neurofibromatosis type I, and in various cancers. The best described function of Nf1 is its Ras-GTPase activity, carried out by its GAP-related domain (GRD). SecPH, another structurally well-characterized domain of Nf1, is immediately adjacent to the GRD and interacts with lipids and proteins, thus connecting Nf1 to diverse signalling pathways. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time, that Nf1 and SecPH are substrates of the SUMO pathway. We identified a well-defined SUMOylation profile of SecPH and a main SUMOylation event on Lys1731 that appears to play a role in Ras-GAP activity. Our data allowed us to characterize a new set of pathogenic Nf1 missense mutants that exhibits a disrupted SUMOylation profile that may correlate with their unfolding. Accordingly, Lys1731 SUMOylation is mediated by a noncanonical structural motif, therefore allowing a read-out of SecPH conformation and folding status.

2021 ◽  
Ines Serra ◽  
Ana Stravs ◽  
Catarina Osorio ◽  
Maria Roa Oyaga ◽  
Martijn Schonewille ◽  

Tuberous sclerosis complex 1 (TSC1) is a tumour suppressor gene that inhibits the mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway. Mutations in TSC1 lead to a rare complex disorder of the same name, in which up to 50% of patients present with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). ASD is a highly prevalent, early-onset neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by social deficits and repetitive behaviours, although the type and severity of symptoms show wide variability across individuals. Amongst different brain areas proposed to play a role in the development of ASD, the cerebellum is commonly reported to be altered, and cerebellar-specific deletion of Tsc1 in mice is sufficient to induce an ASD-like phenotype. Given that the mTOR pathway is crucial for proper cell replication and migration, this suggests that dysregulation of this pathway, particularly during critical phases of cerebellar development, could contribute to the establishment of ASD. Here, we used a mouse model of TSC to investigate gene and protein expression during embryonic and early postnatal periods of cerebellar development. We found that, at E18 and P7, mRNA levels of the cerebellar inhibitory interneuron marker Pax2 were dysregulated. This was accompanied by changes in the expression of mTOR pathway-related genes and downstream phosphorylation of S6. Differential gene correlation analysis revealed dynamic changes in correlated gene pairs across development, with an overall loss of correlation between mTOR- and cerebellar-related genes in Tsc1 mutants compared to controls. We corroborated the genetic findings by characterizing the mTOR pathway and cerebellar development on protein and cellular levels with Western blot and immunohistochemistry. We found that Pax2-expressing cells were hypertrophic at E18 while, at P7, their number was increased and maturation into parvalbumin-expressing cells delayed. Our findings indicate that E18 and P7 are crucial time points in cerebellar development in mice that are particularly susceptible to mTOR pathway dysregulation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (1) ◽  
Shuai Huang ◽  
Kai Luo ◽  
Li Jiang ◽  
Xu-Dong Zhang ◽  
Ying-Hao Lv ◽  

AbstractPCBP1 is a multifunctional RNA-binding protein (RBP) expressed in most human cells and is involved in posttranscriptional gene regulation. PCBP1 regulates the alternative splicing, translation and RNA stability of many cancer-related genes and has been identified as a potential tumour suppressor gene. PCBP1 inhibits the invasion of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells, but there are few studies on the specific regulatory target and mechanism of RBPs in HCC, and it is unclear whether PCBP1 plays a role in tumour metastasis as a splicing factor. We analysed the regulation of gene expression by PCBP1 at the transcriptional level. We obtained and analysed PCBP1-knockdown RNA-seq data and eCLIP-seq data of PCBP1 in HepG2 cells and found that PCBP1 widely regulates the alternative splicing and expression of genes enriched in cancer-related pathways, including extracellular matrix, cell adhesion, small molecule metabolic process and apoptosis. We validated five regulated alternative splicing events affected by PCBP1 using RT-qPCR and found that there was a significant difference in the expression of APOC1 and SPHK1 between tumour and normal tissues. In this study, we provided convincing evidence that human PCBP1 profoundly regulates the splicing of genes associated with tumour metastasis. These findings provide new insight into potential markers or therapeutic targets for HCC treatment.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Yan Gu ◽  
Yanrong Chen ◽  
Lai Wei ◽  
Shuang Wu ◽  
Kaicheng Shen ◽  

AbstractCancer stemness represents a major source of development and progression of colorectal cancer (CRC). c-Met critically contributes to CRC stemness, but how c-Met is activated in CRC remains elusive. We previously identified the lipolytic factor ABHD5 as an important tumour suppressor gene in CRC. Here, we show that loss of ABHD5 promotes c-Met activation to sustain CRC stemness in a non-canonical manner. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that ABHD5 interacts in the cytoplasm with the core subunit of the SET1A methyltransferase complex, DPY30, thereby inhibiting the nuclear translocation of DPY30 and activity of SET1A. In the absence of ABHD5, DPY30 translocates to the nucleus and supports SET1A-mediated methylation of YAP and histone H3, which sequesters YAP in the nucleus and increases chromatin accessibility to synergistically promote YAP-induced transcription of c-Met, thus promoting the stemness of CRC cells. This study reveals a novel role of ABHD5 in regulating histone/non-histone methylation and CRC stemness.

Blood ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 138 (Supplement 1) ◽  
pp. 2683-2683
John R Jones ◽  
Charlotte Pawlyn ◽  
Niels Weinhold ◽  
Timothy Cody Ashby ◽  
Brian A Walker ◽  

Abstract Introduction In Multiple Myeloma (MM) the emergence of treatment resistant clones is a characteristic feature of relapse and this is particularly so for high-risk cases. A key driver event mediating progression, risk status and relapse is gain(1q) (1q+). We report on the impact of 1q+ on the genetic profile seen at first relapse in a uniformly treated, newly diagnosed series of 56 patients enrolled to the NCRI Myeloma XI Trial. Methods We included 56 high risk patients, defined as relapse within 30 months of maintenance randomisation (median 19 months, range 8-51). Of the 56 patients, 30 received lenalidomide maintenance and 26 were observed. Whole exome sequencing was conducted at presentation and relapse to a median depth of 122x for tumour samples and 58x for controls. Libraries were prepared using the SureSelectQXT sample prep kit and SureSelect Clinical Research Exome kit. MuTect was used to determine gene variants and SciClone clustering was undertaken to map mutation variant allele frequencies. MANTA was used to determine translocations and Sequenza for copy number aberrations. Clonal structure and mechanisms of clonal evolution were assessed using kernel density estimation of the cancer clonal fraction for all mutations. Wilcoxon matched-pairs signed rank tests (2-sided) were used to determine the significance between paired data sets, including mutational load. Fishers exact test was used to determine the difference between two nominal variables. Results We looked at mutational, structural and clonal evolution events in all patients based on 1q+ status at relapse. At diagnosis, 34% (19/56) patients had evidence of 1q+, increasing to 46% (26/56) at relapse, with all patients harbouring 1q+ at presentation having the lesion at relapse. There was a significantly higher non-synonymous mutational load at relapse in patients with 1q+, 107 vs 126 (p=0.047), compared to those without 1q+, 36 vs 44 (p=0.140). Twenty two genes known to be significant in MM and mutations within the genes known to be important in IMiD mechanism of action were reviewed. Of the patients with 1q+, 92% (24/26) had at least one mutation during the course of the disease, compared to 77% in those without 1q+ (p=0.15). The impact on tumour suppressor gene regions including deletions of chromosome 1p, 13, 14 and 17p was analyzed. Of the patients with 1q+, 77% (20/26) of patients had a deletion of one of these regions during the disease course, compared to 57% (17/30) of patients without 1q+ (p=0.16). At relapse a change in the profile of these lesions was noted in 23% (6/26) patients with 1q+, compared to 20% (6/30) patients without 1q+ (p=1). Translocations involving MYC (t MYC) were also determined and found in 27% (7/26) of patients with 1q+ and 27% (8/30) of patients without (p=1). As with 1q+, t MYC was always preserved at relapse. Mechanisms of evolution leading to relapse were established for all patients. Branching and linear evolution predominated, noted to be the mechanism leading to relapse in 88% (23/26) patients with 1q+ and 83% (25/30) without (p0.71). Stable evolution was noted in the remaining patients. 1q+ occurring as a new event at relapse was associated with branching or linear evolution in all patients (n=7), consistent with a change in clonal structure. Conclusion These data reveal that 1q+ is conserved throughout the disease course, suggesting it imparts a survival advantage and treatment resistant phenotype to the clone(s) containing it. The presence of 1q+ is associated with a significant increase in mutational load at relapse and a greater incidence of tumour suppressor gene structural deletions, mechanisms that may contribute to clonal evolution and therapeutic escape. Disclosures Jones: BMS/Celgene: Other: Conference fees; Janssen: Honoraria. Pawlyn: Celgene / BMS: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Janssen: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Amgen: Honoraria; Sanofi: Honoraria, Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees. Weinhold: Sanofi: Honoraria. Walker: Sanofi: Speakers Bureau; Bristol Myers Squibb: Research Funding. Cairns: Merck Sharpe and Dohme: Research Funding; Amgen: Research Funding; Takeda: Research Funding; Celgene / BMS: Other: travel support, Research Funding. Kaiser: AbbVie: Consultancy; Seattle Genetics: Consultancy; BMS/Celgene: Consultancy, Other: Travel support, Research Funding; Amgen: Honoraria; Karyopharm: Consultancy, Research Funding; Pfizer: Consultancy; Janssen: Consultancy, Other: Educational support, Research Funding; GSK: Consultancy; Takeda: Consultancy, Other: Educational support. Cook: Pfizer: Consultancy, Honoraria; Karyopharm: Consultancy, Honoraria; BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Sanofi: Consultancy, Honoraria; Oncopeptides: Consultancy, Honoraria; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding; Roche: Consultancy, Honoraria. Drayson: Abingdon Health: Current holder of individual stocks in a privately-held company. Jackson: oncopeptides: Consultancy; takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; GSK: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; J and J: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; celgene BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria, Research Funding, Speakers Bureau; amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria, Speakers Bureau; Sanofi: Honoraria, Speakers Bureau. Davies: BMS: Consultancy, Honoraria; Takeda: Consultancy, Honoraria; Abbvie: Consultancy, Honoraria; Janssen: Consultancy, Honoraria; Amgen: Consultancy, Honoraria; Roche: Consultancy, Honoraria. Morgan: BMS: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Jansen: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Karyopharm: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; Oncopeptides: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees; GSK: Membership on an entity's Board of Directors or advisory committees.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (11) ◽  
Kathryn Davidson ◽  
Paul Grevitt ◽  
Maria F. Contreras-Gerenas ◽  
Katherine S. Bridge ◽  
Miguel Hermida ◽  

AbstractAn early event in lung oncogenesis is loss of the tumour suppressor gene LIMD1 (LIM domains containing 1); this encodes a scaffold protein, which suppresses tumorigenesis via a number of different mechanisms. Approximately 45% of non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLC) are deficient in LIMD1, yet this subtype of NSCLC has been overlooked in preclinical and clinical investigations. Defining therapeutic targets in these LIMD1 loss-of-function patients is difficult due to a lack of ‘druggable’ targets, thus alternative approaches are required. To this end, we performed the first drug repurposing screen to identify compounds that confer synthetic lethality with LIMD1 loss in NSCLC cells. PF-477736 was shown to selectively target LIMD1-deficient cells in vitro through inhibition of multiple kinases, inducing cell death via apoptosis. Furthermore, PF-477736 was effective in treating LIMD1−/− tumours in subcutaneous xenograft models, with no significant effect in LIMD1+/+ cells. We have identified a novel drug tool with significant preclinical characterisation that serves as an excellent candidate to explore and define LIMD1-deficient cancers as a new therapeutic subgroup of critical unmet need.

2021 ◽  
Vol 30 (162) ◽  
pp. 210045
Patrick R. Benusiglio ◽  
Vincent Fallet ◽  
Mateo Sanchis-Borja ◽  
Florence Coulet ◽  
Jacques Cadranel

Pathogenic genetic variants (formerly called mutations) present in the germline of some individuals are associated with a clinically relevant increased risk of developing lung cancer. These germline pathogenic variants are hereditary and are transmitted in an autosomal dominant fashion. There are two major lung cancer susceptibility syndromes, and both seem to be specifically associated with the adenocarcinoma subtype. Li-Fraumeni syndrome is caused by variants in the TP53 tumour-suppressor gene. Carriers are mainly at risk of early-onset breast cancer, sarcoma, glioma, leukaemia, adrenal cortical carcinoma and lung cancer. EGFR variants, T790M in particular, cause the EGFR susceptibility syndrome. Risk seems limited to lung cancer. Emerging data suggest that variants in ATM, the breast and pancreatic cancer susceptibility gene, also increase lung adenocarcinoma risk. As for inherited lung disease, cancer risk is increased in SFTPA1 and SFTPA2 variant carriers independently of the underlying fibrosis. In this review, we provide criteria warranting the referral of a lung cancer patient to the cancer genetics clinic. Pathogenic variants are first identified in patients with cancer, and then in a subset of their relatives. Lung cancer screening should be offered to asymptomatic carriers, with thoracic magnetic resonance imaging at its core.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Sara M. Ambjørn ◽  
Julien P. Duxin ◽  
Emil P. T. Hertz ◽  
Isha Nasa ◽  
Joana Duro ◽  

AbstractMutations in the tumour suppressor gene BRCA2 are associated with predisposition to breast and ovarian cancers. BRCA2 has a central role in maintaining genome integrity by facilitating the repair of toxic DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination (HR). BRCA2 acts by controlling RAD51 nucleoprotein filament formation on resected single-stranded DNA, but how BRCA2 activity is regulated during HR is not fully understood. Here, we delineate a pathway where ATM and ATR kinases phosphorylate a highly conserved region in BRCA2 in response to DSBs. These phosphorylations stimulate the binding of the protein phosphatase PP2A-B56 to BRCA2 through a conserved binding motif. We show that the phosphorylation-dependent formation of the BRCA2-PP2A-B56 complex is required for efficient RAD51 filament formation at sites of DNA damage and HR-mediated DNA repair. Moreover, we find that several cancer-associated mutations in BRCA2 deregulate the BRCA2-PP2A-B56 interaction and sensitize cells to PARP inhibition. Collectively, our work uncovers PP2A-B56 as a positive regulator of BRCA2 function in HR with clinical implications for BRCA2 and PP2A-B56 mutated cancers.

2021 ◽  
Julia Ledderose ◽  
Jorge A Benitez ◽  
Amanda J Roberts ◽  
Rachel Reed ◽  
Willem Bintig ◽  

The lipid phosphatase Pten (phosphatase and tensin homologue on chromosome 10) is a key tumour suppressor gene and an important regulator of neuronal signalling. Pten mutations have been identified in patients with autism spectrum disorders, characterized by macrocephaly, impaired social interactions and communication, repetitive behaviour, intellectual disability, and epilepsy. Pten enzymatic activity is regulated by a cluster of phosphorylation sites at the C-terminus of the protein. Here we specifically focussed on the role of Pten T366 phosphorylation and generated a knock-in mouse line in which Pten T366 was substituted with alanine (PtenT366A/T366A). We identify that phosphorylation of Pten at T366 controls neuron size and connectivity of brain circuits involved in sensory processing. We show in behavioural tests that PtenT366/T366A mice exhibit cognitive deficits and selective sensory impairments, with significant differences in male individuals. We identify restricted cellular overgrowth of cortical neurons in PtenT366A/T366A brains, linked to increases in both dendritic arborization and soma size. In a combinatorial approach of anterograde and retrograde monosynaptic tracing using rabies virus, we characterize differences in connectivity to the primary somatosensory cortex of PtenT366A/T366A brains, with imbalances in long-range cortico-cortical input to neurons. We conclude that phosphorylation of Pten at T366 controls neuron size and connectivity of brain circuits involved in sensory processing and propose that PTEN T366 signalling may account for a subset of autism-related functions of Pten.

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