spot detection
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2022 ◽  
Vol 22 ◽  
pp. 100945
Jiatiao Jiang ◽  
Yuhang Fan ◽  
Sijie Zhang ◽  
Qiyao Wang ◽  
Yuanxing Zhang ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (2) ◽  
pp. 323
Pauline Verdurme ◽  
Simon Carn ◽  
Andrew J. L. Harris ◽  
Diego Coppola ◽  
Andrea Di Muro ◽  

Five effusive eruptions of Piton de la Fournaise (La Réunion) are analyzed to investigate temporal trends of erupted mass and sulfur dioxide (SO2) emissions. Daily SO2 emissions are acquired from three ultraviolet (UV) satellite instruments (the Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI), the Ozone Mapping and Profiler Suite (OMPS), and the Tropospheric Monitoring Instrument (TROPOMI)) and an array of ground-based UV spectrometers (Network for Observation of Volcanic and Atmospheric Change (NOVAC)). Time-averaged lava discharge rates (TADRs) are obtained from two automatic satellite-based hot spot detection systems: MIROVA and MODVOLC. Assuming that the lava volumes measured in the field are accurate, the MIROVA system gave the best estimation of erupted volume among the methods investigated. We use a reverse petrological method to constrain pre-eruptive magmatic sulfur contents based on observed SO2 emissions and lava volumes. We also show that a direct petrological approach using SO2 data might be a viable alternative for TADR estimation during cloudy weather that compromises hot spot detection. In several eruptions we observed a terminal increase in TADR and SO2 emissions after initial emission of evolved degassed magma. We ascribe this to input of deeper, volatile-rich magma into the plumbing system towards the end of these eruptions. Furthermore, we find no evidence of volatile excess in the five eruptions studied, which were thus mostly fed by shallow degassed magma.

Sensors ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (2) ◽  
pp. 464
Upesh Nepal ◽  
Hossein Eslamiat

In-flight system failure is one of the major safety concerns in the operation of unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) in urban environments. To address this concern, a safety framework consisting of following three main tasks can be utilized: (1) Monitoring health of the UAV and detecting failures, (2) Finding potential safe landing spots in case a critical failure is detected in step 1, and (3) Steering the UAV to a safe landing spot found in step 2. In this paper, we specifically look at the second task, where we investigate the feasibility of utilizing object detection methods to spot safe landing spots in case the UAV suffers an in-flight failure. Particularly, we investigate different versions of the YOLO objection detection method and compare their performances for the specific application of detecting a safe landing location for a UAV that has suffered an in-flight failure. We compare the performance of YOLOv3, YOLOv4, and YOLOv5l while training them by a large aerial image dataset called DOTA in a Personal Computer (PC) and also a Companion Computer (CC). We plan to use the chosen algorithm on a CC that can be attached to a UAV, and the PC is used to verify the trends that we see between the algorithms on the CC. We confirm the feasibility of utilizing these algorithms for effective emergency landing spot detection and report their accuracy and speed for that specific application. Our investigation also shows that the YOLOv5l algorithm outperforms YOLOv4 and YOLOv3 in terms of accuracy of detection while maintaining a slightly slower inference speed.

2021 ◽  
Emmanuel Bouilhol ◽  
Edgar Lefevre ◽  
Benjamin Dartigues ◽  
Robyn Brackin ◽  
Anca F Savulescu ◽  

Detection of RNA spots in single molecule FISH microscopy images remains a difficult task especially when applied to large volumes of data. The small size of RNA spots combined with high noise level of images often requires a manual adaptation of the spot detection thresholds for each image. In this work we introduce DeepSpot, a Deep Learning based tool specifically designed to enhance RNA spots which enables spot detection without need to resort to image per image parameter tuning. We show how our method can enable the downstream accurate detection of spots. The architecture of DeepSpot is inspired by small object detection approaches. It incorporates dilated convolutions into a module specifically designed for the Context Aggregation for Small Object (CASO) and uses Residual Convolutions to propagate this information along the network. This enables DeepSpot to enhance all RNA spots to the same intensity and thus circumvents the need for parameter tuning. We evaluated how easily spots can be detected in images enhanced by our method, by training DeepSpot on 20 simulated and 1 experimental datasets, and have shown that more than 97% accuracy is achieved. Moreover, comparison with alternative deep learning approaches for mRNA spot detection (deepBlink) indicated that DeepSpot allows more precise mRNA detection. In addition, we generated smFISH images from mouse fibroblasts in a wound healing assay to evaluate whether DeepSpot enhancement can enable seamless mRNA spot detection and thus streamline studies of localized mRNA expression in cells.

2021 ◽  
Stephan Preibisch ◽  
Ella Bahry ◽  
Laura Breimann ◽  
Marwan Zouinkhi ◽  
Leo Epstein ◽  

Abstract Fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH)-based methods are powerful tools to study molecular processes with subcellular resolution, relying on accurate identification and localization of diffraction-limited spots in microscopy images. We developed the Radial Symmetry-FISH (RS-FISH) software that accurately, robustly, and quickly detects single-molecule spots in two and three dimensions, making it applicable to several key assays, including single-molecule FISH (smFISH), spatial transcriptomics, and spatial genomics. RS-FISH allows interactive parameter tuning and scales to large sets of images as well as tera-byte sized image volumes such as entire brain scans using straight-forward distributed processing on workstations, clusters, and in the cloud.

2021 ◽  
Xiaoyan Liu ◽  
Deqiang Jiao ◽  
Xiangxin Shao ◽  
Xin Mu

2021 ◽  
pp. 231-242
Hilma Raimona Zadry ◽  
Hanida Abdul Aziz ◽  
Mirta Widia ◽  
Ezrin Hani Sukadarin ◽  
Hairunnisa Osman ◽  

David Wong

Local Moran and local G-statistic are commonly used to identify high-value (hot spot) and low-value (cold spot) spatial clusters for various purposes. However, these popular tools are based on the concept of spatial autocorrelation or association (SA), but do not explicitly consider if values are high or low enough to deserve attention. Resultant clusters may not include areas with extreme values that practitioners often want to identify when using these tools. Additionally, these tools are based on statistics that assume observed values or estimates are highly accurate with error levels that can be ignored or are spatially uniform. In this article, problems associated with these popular SA-based cluster detection tools were illustrated. Alternative hot spot-cold spot detection methods considering estimate error were explored. The class separability classification method was demonstrated to produce useful results. A heuristic hot spot-cold spot identification method was also proposed. Based on user-determined threshold values, areas with estimates exceeding the thresholds were treated as seeds. These seeds and neighboring areas with estimates that were not statistically different from those in the seeds at a given confidence level constituted the hot spots and cold spots. Results from the heuristic method were intuitively meaningful and practically valuable.

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