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2022 ◽  
Vol 152 ◽  
pp. 106659
Matan E. Shiner ◽  
Ofra Klein-BenDavid ◽  
Emilie L'Hôpital ◽  
Alexandre Dauzères ◽  
Mejdi Neji ◽  
Low Ph ◽  

Cells ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 284
Paulina Wigner ◽  
Michał Bijak ◽  
Joanna Saluk-Bijak

Nephrolithiasis ranks third among urological diseases in terms of prevalence, making up about 15% of cases. The continued increase in the incidence of nephrolithiasis is most probably due to changes in eating habits (high protein, sodium, and sugar diets) and lifestyle (reduced physical activity) in all developed countries. Some 80% of all kidney stones cases are oxalate urolithiasis, which is also characterized by the highest risk of recurrence. Frequent relapses of nephrolithiasis contribute to severe complications and high treatment costs. Unfortunately, there is no known effective way to prevent urolithiasis at present. In cases of diet-related urolithiasis, dietary changes may prevent recurrence. However, in some patients, the condition is unrelated to diet; in such cases, there is evidence to support the use of stone-related medications. Interestingly, a growing body of evidence indicates the potential of the microbiome to reduce the risk of developing renal colic. Previous studies have primarily focused on the use of Oxalobacterformigenes in patients with urolithiasis. Unfortunately, this bacterium is not an ideal probiotic due to its antibiotic sensitivity and low pH. Therefore, subsequent studies sought to find bacteria which are capable of oxalate degradation, focusing on well-known probiotics including Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains, Eubacterium lentum, Enterococcus faecalis, and Escherichia coli.

Processes ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 10 (1) ◽  
pp. 156
Rita Noelle Moussa ◽  
Najah Moussa ◽  
Davide Dionisi

In the context of hydrogen production from biomass or organic waste with dark fermentation, this study analysed 55 studies (339 experiments) in the literature looking for the effect of operating parameters on the process performance of dark fermentation. The effect of substrate concentration, pH, temperature, and residence time on hydrogen yield, productivity, and content in the biogas was analysed. In addition, a linear regression model was developed to also account for the effect of nature and pretreatment of the substrate, inhibition of methanogenesis, and continuous or batch operating mode. The analysis showed that the hydrogen yield was mainly affected by pH and residence time, with the highest yields obtained for low pH and short residence time. High hydrogen productivity was favoured by high feed concentration, short residence time, and low pH. More modest was the effect on the hydrogen content. The mean values of hydrogen yield, productivity, and content were, respectively, 6.49% COD COD−1, 135 mg L−1 d−1, 51% v/v, while 10% of the considered experiments obtained yield, productivity, and content of or higher than 15.55% COD COD−1, 305.16 mg L−1 d−1, 64% v/v. Overall, this study provides insight into how to select the optimum operating conditions to obtain the desired hydrogen production.

Molecules ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 27 (2) ◽  
pp. 409
Maiko Uehara ◽  
Chinatsu Takasaki ◽  
Satoshi Wakita ◽  
Yasusato Sugahara ◽  
Eri Tabata ◽  

Chitooligosaccharides, the degradation products of chitin and chitosan, possess anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, and anti-inflammatory activities. The enzymatic production of chitooligosaccharides may increase the interest in their potential biomedical or agricultural usability in terms of the safety and simplicity of the manufacturing process. Crab-eating monkey acidic chitinase (CHIA) is an enzyme with robust activity in various environments. Here, we report the efficient degradation of chitin and chitosan by monkey CHIA under acidic and high-temperature conditions. Monkey CHIA hydrolyzed α-chitin at 50 °C, producing N-acetyl-D-glucosamine (GlcNAc) dimers more efficiently than at 37 °C. Moreover, the degradation rate increased with a longer incubation time (up to 72 h) without the inactivation of the enzyme. Five substrates (α-chitin, colloidal chitin, P-chitin, block-type, and random-type chitosan substrates) were exposed to monkey CHIS at pH 2.0 or pH 5.0 at 50 °C. P-chitin and random-type chitosan appeared to be the best sources of GlcNAc dimers and broad-scale chitooligosaccharides, respectively. In addition, the pattern of the products from the block-type chitosan was different between pH conditions (pH 2.0 and pH 5.0). Thus, monkey CHIA can degrade chitin and chitosan efficiently without inactivation under high-temperature or low pH conditions. Our results show that certain chitooligosaccharides are enriched by using different substrates under different conditions. Therefore, the reaction conditions can be adjusted to obtain desired oligomers. Crab-eating monkey CHIA can potentially become an efficient tool in producing chitooligosaccharide sets for agricultural and biomedical purposes.

Viruses ◽  
2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 109
Kuan-Chi Tseng ◽  
Bang-Yan Hsu ◽  
Pin Ling ◽  
Wen-Wen Lu ◽  
Cheng-Wen Lin ◽  

Enterovirus 71 (EV71) is an etiological agent of hand foot and mouth disease and can also cause neurological complications in young children. However, there are no approved drugs as of yet to treat EV71 infections. In this study, we conducted antiviral drug screening by using a Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved drug library. We identified five drugs that showed dose-dependent inhibition of viral replication. Sertraline was further characterized because it exhibited the most potent antiviral activity with the highest selectivity index among the five hits. The antiviral activity of sertraline was noted for other EV serotypes. The drug’s antiviral effect is not likely associated with its approved indications as an antidepressant and its mode-of-action as a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor. The time-of-addition assay revealed that sertraline inhibited an EV71 infection at the entry stage. We also showed that sertraline partitioned into acidic compartments, such as endolysosomes, to neutralize the low pH levels. In agreement with the findings, the antiviral effect of sertraline could be greatly relieved by exposing virus-infected cells to extracellular low-pH culture media. Ultimately, we have identified a use for an FDA-approved antidepressant in broad-spectrum EV inhibition by blocking viral entry through the alkalization of the endolysosomal route.

2022 ◽  
Vol 204 (2) ◽  
Naimisha Chowdhury ◽  
Dibya Jyoti Hazarika ◽  
Gunajit Goswami ◽  
Unmona Sarmah ◽  
Shrutirupa Borah ◽  

Anna Norén ◽  
Célia Lointier ◽  
Oskar Modin ◽  
Ann-Margret Strömvall ◽  
Sebastien Rauch ◽  

AbstractMetal and tributyltin (TBT) contaminated sediments are problematic for sediment managers and the environment. This study is the first to compare Fenton’s reagent and electrochemical treatment as remediation methods for the removal of TBT and metals using laboratory-scale experiments on contaminated dredged sediment. The costs and the applicability of the developed methods were also compared and discussed. Both methods removed > 98% TBT from TBT-spiked sediment samples, while Fenton’s reagent removed 64% of the TBT and electrolysis 58% of the TBT from non-spiked samples. TBT in water phase was effectively degraded in both experiments on spiked water and in leachates during the treatment of the sediment. Positive correlations were observed between TBT removal and the added amount of hydrogen peroxide and current density. Both methods removed metals from the sediment, but Fenton’s reagent was identified as the most potent option for effective removal of both metals and TBT, especially from highly metal-contaminated sediment. However, due to risks associated with the required chemicals and low pH level in the sediment residue following the Fenton treatment, electrochemical treatment could be a more sustainable option for treating larger quantities of contaminated sediment.

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Yufeng Chen ◽  
Xiaojing Gao ◽  
Shucheng Liu ◽  
Qiuxing Cai ◽  
Lijun Wu ◽  

In this work, the lactoferrin (LF) was glycosylated by dextran (molecular weight 10, 40, and 70 kDa, LF 10K, LF 40K, and LF 70K) via Maillard reaction as a stabilizer to establish zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles and encapsulate 7,8-dihydroxyflavone (7,8-DHF). Three zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles (79.27–87.24 nm) with low turbidity (<0.220) and polydispersity index (PDI) (<0.230) were successfully established by hydrophobic interactions and hydrogen bonding. Compared with zein/LF nanoparticles, zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles further increased stability to ionic strength (0–500 mM NaCl) at low pH conditions. Zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles had nanoscale spherical shape and glycosylated LF changed surface morphology of zein nanoparticles. Besides, encapsulated 7,8-DHF exhibited an amorphous state inside zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles. Most importantly, zein/glycosylated LF nanoparticles had good water redispersibility, high encapsulation efficiency (above 98.50%), favorable storage stability, and bioaccessibility for 7,8-DHF, particularly LF 40K. Collectively, the above research provides a theoretical reference for the application of zein-based delivery systems.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Justin P. Hawkins ◽  
Ivan J. Oresnik

The interaction of bacteria with plants can result in either a positive, negative, or neutral association. The rhizobium-legume interaction is a well-studied model system of a process that is considered a positive interaction. This process has evolved to require a complex signal exchange between the host and the symbiont. During this process, rhizobia are subject to several stresses, including low pH, oxidative stress, osmotic stress, as well as growth inhibiting plant peptides. A great deal of work has been carried out to characterize the bacterial response to these stresses. Many of the responses to stress are also observed to have key roles in symbiotic signaling. We propose that stress tolerance responses have been co-opted by the plant and bacterial partners to play a role in the complex signal exchange that occurs between rhizobia and legumes to establish functional symbiosis. This review will cover how rhizobia tolerate stresses, and how aspects of these tolerance mechanisms play a role in signal exchange between rhizobia and legumes.

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