dispersion test
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CivilEng ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (1) ◽  
pp. 21-34
Hossein Noorvand ◽  
Samuel Castro Brockman ◽  
Michael Mamlouk ◽  
Kamil Kaloush

Fiber-reinforced asphalt concrete (FRAC) was tested using limestone, PG 64-22 binder, and 20% reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP). After mixing fibers with different lengths and dosages, they were extracted and recovered to evaluate their dispersion in the FRAC. The uniaxial fatigue test, IDEAL CT test, and flow number test were performed on FRAC with different fiber lengths and asphalt contents. The balanced mix design (BMD) approach was then used to analyze the uniaxial and flow number test results in order to evaluate the effect of aramid fibers on fatigue and rutting resistance of the pavement. The dispersion test showed that the 19 mm and 10 mm aramid fibers at a dosage rate of 0.5 g/kg provided the best dispersion. The 19 mm fibers showed better performance test results than the 10 mm and 38 mm fibers. The BMD approach provided ranges of asphalt contents to produce mixes with certain resistances to fatigue and rutting. The BMD approach also demonstrated the effect of fibers with different lengths on increasing the resistance to fatigue and rutting. The study concluded that the 19 mm fibers with a dosage of 0.5 g/kg produce best results. The BMD approach is a good tool that can be used to refine the mix ingredients, including additives such as fibers, in order to optimize pavement resistance to various distresses such as fatigue cracking and rutting.

Alejandro Baratas ◽  
Jaime Gosálvez ◽  
Moises de la Casa ◽  
Silvia Camacho ◽  
Monica Dorado-Silva ◽  

AbstractThe determination of oocyte quality is crucial for achieving effective syngamy post-sperm injection and embryonic development. Cumulus cells (CCs) have been proposed as biomarkers of oocyte quality because of their close bio-dynamic relationship with the oocyte. To determine the quality of the oocyte, CCs were sampled during oocyte preparation for ICSI to determine a CC DNA fragmentation index (CCDFI) of each individual oocyte using a variant of the chromatin dispersion test. One hundred and thirty oocytes were selected and studied from two Spanish fertility clinics, 90 of which were fertilized and developed to embryos. Significant differences were found between the CCDFI of unfertilized and fertilized oocytes (p < .001) and between the CCDFI of embryos that were discarded and those that developed suitable for transfer or cryopreservation (p < .001). Oocyte quality was negatively correlated with CCDFI (Spearman’s rho =  − 0.45; p < .001). Receiver operator characteristics curves (ROC) suggested that a cut-off value of 24% CCDFI was able to discriminate the capacity of the gametes to result in syngamy with a sensitivity and specificity of 75.6% and 65%, respectively. This cut-off supports the application of CCDFI as potential index for the evaluation of the reproductive potential of oocytes prior to fertilization.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 1035-1045
D Dananirroh ◽  
Urmatul Waznah ◽  
W Wirasti ◽  
S Slamet

AbstractMusa paradisiaca Linn, also known as the banana plant in Indonesia, is a herbaceous plant that belongs to the Musaceaa family. Cotton banana peel (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) can be used as a wound medicine. For use, it is still simple, namely by applying the inside of the banana peel to the injured body part, and by scraping the banana peel from the inside to bandage the wound. For this reason, it is necessary to develop a dosage form of this cotton banana peel so that it is easier and provides comfort in its use. Purpose: To find out the skin of cotton banana (Musa paradisiaca Linn) is formulated in cream preparations. The method in this study was experimental, the sample was extracted by maceration using 96% ethanol as solvent. The viscous extract obtained was used at concentrations of 0.08%, 0.10%, and 0.12%. The results showed that cotton banana peel extract (Musa paradisiaca Linn) could be made as a cream and fulfilled the physical evaluation of the preparation. The results of the homogeneity test were that the preparations were made homogeneous, the pH of the cream was obtained at pH 5-7 still fulfilling the skin pH range of 4-7, the adhesion test results obtained more than 5 seconds, the dispersion test results obtained 6-7 cm, the viscosity test at formula I is 3564 – 4253 cPas, Formula II is 4042 – 4746 cPas, Formula III is 4466 – 5254 cPas. The conclusion of this study, the formulation of the ethanol extract cream of cotton banana peel (Musa paradisiaca Linn) met the requirements for physical evaluation of the preparation including homogeneity test, pH test, organoleptic test, dispersibility test, adhesion test, viscosity test and stability test.Keywords: Formulation, banana peel, cream, evaluation. AbstrakMusa paradisiaca Linn atau dikenal dengan nama tumbuhan pisang di Indonesia adalah tumbuhan herba yang termasuk dalam keluarga Musaceaa. Kulit buah pisang kapas (Musa paradisiaca Linn.) dapat digunakan sebagai obat luka. Untuk penggunaan masih sederhana yaitu dengan mengoleskan bagian dalam dari kulit buah pisang pada bagian tubuh yang luka, dan dengan cara mengorek kulit buah pisang dari dalam untuk membalut luka. Untuk itu perlu adanya pengembangan bentuk sediaan dari kulit pisang kapas ini sehingga lebih memudahkan dan memberikan kenyamanan dalam penggunaannya. Tujuan Untuk mengetahui kulit buah pisang kapas (Musa paradisiaca Linn) diformulasikan dalam sediaan krim. Metode pada penelitian ini dilakukan secara eksprimental, sampel di ekstraksi dengan cara maserasi dengan menggunakan pelarut etanol 96%. Ekstrak kental yang diperoleh digunakan pada konsentrasi 0.08%, 0.10%, dan 0.12%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa ekstrak kulit pisang kapas (Musa paradisiaca Linn) dapat dibuat sebagai krim dan memenuhi evaluasi fisik sediaan. Hasil uji homogenitas bahwa sediaan yang dibuat homogen, pH krim diperoleh pH 5-7 masih memenuhi kisaran pH kulit 4-7, uji daya lekat hasil yang diperoleh lebih dari 5 detik, uji daya sebar hasil yang diperoleh 6 – 7 cm, uji viskositas pada formula I yaitu 3564 – 4253 cPas, Formula II yaitu 4042 – 4746 cPas, Formula III yaitu 4466 – 5254 cPas. Kesimpulan pada penelitian ini, formulasi sediaan krim ekstrak etanol kulit pisang kapas (Musa paradisiaca Linn) memenuhi syarat evaluasi fisik sediaan meliputi uji homogenitas , uji pH, uji organoleptis, uji daya sebar, uji daya lekat, uji viskositas dan uji stabilias.Kata kunci: Formulasi, kulit pisang, krim, evaluasi.

2021 ◽  
Vol 930 (1) ◽  
pp. 012020
T Setianingsih ◽  
D Purwonugroho ◽  
YP Prananto

Abstract Patchouli biomass is a potential precursor for CNS synthesis. In this research, the patchouli was pyrolyzed using the microwave. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of microwave energy and activator toward physicochemistry of CNS and composite (ZnO/CNS) and application of ZnCr2O4/CNS for the pesticide polluted surface water remediation in paddy field. In the process, the biomass was pyrolyzed at four and 8W with and without the ZnCl2 activator. The products were blended and evaporated to obtain CNS and ZnO/CNS. The products were characterized using FTIR spectrometry, XRD, and dispersion test. The composites were used to synthesize ZnCr2O4/CNS at 600W in the microwave. The composites were used for buthylphenylmethyl carbamate pesticide degradation test (BPMC) for 48 h with H2O2 oxidation. The FTIR spectra indicated better carbonization for products taken using an activator at both microwave energies. The X-ray diffractograms showed the turbostratic structure of carbon obtained at 4W pyrolysis (with activator), meanwhile 8W pyrolysis (without activator). ZnO and turbostratic carbon structures were shown by the product of 8W pyrolisis with activator. The calcined composite indicated ZnCr2O4/CNS. The degradation test showed that ZnCr2O4/CNS(8W) catalyst decreased the BMPC concentration almost three times that of the composite (4W).

Hamsinah H ◽  
Amelia Meylinda ◽  
Khusnia K ◽  
Rio Mario ◽  
Andi Ummum ◽  

Aims and objectives: Computer Vision Syndrome(CVS) is a collection of symptoms related to eye disorders due to the use of computer-based digital devices. So substantial protection is needed against damage caused by exposure to blue light by digital devices. Lutein and zeaxanthin are carotenoids that contain antioxidants so that they can overcome inflammation, have a calming effect and can maintain eye health. The purpose of this research is to produce a topical preparation in the form of a hydrogel eye mask from egg yolk which is useful for overcoming Computer Vision Syndrome(CVS). Methods: This study formulated three formulas with the active ingredients of egg yolk extract 400µg, 600µg and 800µg using 8.75 g of sodium alginate base and 3.75 g of xanthan gum. Evaluation of the preparations included organoleptic tests, weight and size, pH, swellability, shrinkage, homogeneity, viscosity, spreadability, adhesion and stability tests. Results: of the evaluation of the preparations hydrogel eye mask in the three formulas showed good physical characteristics and stability. The results of the evaluation that have been carried out show that the organoleptic test has no changes in color, odor and shape. Test the appropriate weight and size under the eye area. The pH test of the three formulas before storage was 7.3±0.15, 7.1±0.05, 7.1±0.17 and after storage 7.5±0.1, 7.4±0.1, 7.2±0.2. The expansion and shrinkage test showed an increase in weight every hour and a decrease in weight every 10 minutes. The homogeneity test showed the three formulas were homogeneous. The viscosity test is in a good range. The dispersion test of the three formulas before storage was 5.13±0.2, 5.07±0.15 and 5.18±0.28 cm and after storage was 5.05±0.13, 5.20±0.32, and 5.11±0.22 cm. The adhesion of each formula before storage was 4.23±0.51, 3.27±0.84, 3.28±0.62 seconds and after storage 3.24±0.38, 3.26±0.15, 2.96±0.77 seconds. Conclusion: The three formulas produced have good pharmaceutical characteristics and stability so that they can be used to treat Computer Vision Syndrome (CVS).                         Peer Review History: Received: 5 September 2021; Revised: 8 October; Accepted: 25 October, Available online: 15 November 2021 Academic Editor:  Ahmad Najib, Universitas Muslim Indonesia,  Indones UJPR follows the most transparent and toughest ‘Advanced OPEN peer review’ system. The identity of the authors and, reviewers will be known to each other. This transparent process will help to eradicate any possible malicious/purposeful interference by any person (publishing staff, reviewer, editor, author, etc) during peer review. As a result of this unique system, all reviewers will get their due recognition and respect, once their names are published in the papers. We expect that, by publishing peer review reports with published papers, will be helpful to many authors for drafting their article according to the specifications. Auhors will remove any error of their article and they will improve their article(s) according to the previous reports displayed with published article(s). The main purpose of it is ‘to improve the quality of a candidate manuscript’. Our reviewers check the ‘strength and weakness of a manuscript honestly’. There will increase in the perfection, and transparency.  Received file:                Reviewer's Comments: Average Peer review marks at initial stage: 5.0/10 Average Peer review marks at publication stage: 7.0/10 Reviewers: Dr. Mohammad Bayan, Faculty of Pharmacy, Philadelphia University, P.O. Box: 1 Philadelphia University 19392 Jordan, [email protected] Dr. Sally A. El-Zahaby, Pharos University in Alexandria, Egypt, [email protected] Similar Articles: IN-VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LACTOBACILLI METABOLITES LOADED HYDROGEL FORMULATIONS AGAINST PSEUDOMONAS AERUGINOSA

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (2) ◽  
pp. 90-100
Dhafer Hamdan ◽  
Ali Rahim ◽  
Ula Al-Kawaz

For conception and the development of healthy embryos, sperm DNA integrity is crucial. According to a growing body of studies, there is a strong correlation between sperm DNA damage and male infertility. Among the new medicines being developed in the medical field, the application of Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) in human reproduction has yet to be examined. A total of 100 semen samples were used in the current experimental investigation. From November 2020 to June 2021, the research was conducted at the High Institute for Infertility Diagnosis and Assisted Reproductive Technologies. Masturbation was used to get an ejaculated semen sample. After semen analysis, the samples were separated into two equal parts, one without autologous PRP and the other with 2% autologous PRP, with the DNA fragmentation assessed using the Sperm Chromatin Dispersion Test. There was highly significant reduction in DNA fragmentation index (p < 0.001). The mean sperm DNA integrity was reduced after adding PRP (33.85±16.73 vs 38.55±16.64), Mean (± SE). PRP has been shown to improve human sperm DNA integrity.

2021 ◽  
Vol 1 ◽  
pp. 59-66
Intan Siswi Saputri ◽  
Dwi Bagus Pambudi ◽  
Wirasti Wirasti ◽  
St Rahmatullah

AbstractGelling agent is a base in gel preparations that are used to thicken and make drug preparations or cosmetic preparations stable. Natural ingredients have been widely used because they are efficacious as medicine. One of them is bandotan plant (Ageratum Conyzoides L). This study aims to determine the effect of the combination of gelling agent carbopol and HPMC on the physical properties of the gel preparation of bandotan leaf ethanol extract. In this study 3 formulations of gel preparations of bandotan leaf ethanol extract were made with different concentrations of carbopol and HMPC . This research is an experimental research and uses qualitative and quantitative data collection methods from laboratory research. The extraction method used in this study is the maceration method with 96% ethanol as solvent. The prepared gel preparations were tested including organoleptic tests, pH tests, adhesion tests and dispersion tests. The results of this study indicate that there is an effect on the gelling agent of the combination of carbopol and HPMC on the gel preparation of the ethanol extract of bandotan leaves (Ageratum conyzoides L) in formula III with a ratio of gelling agent carbopol and HPMC 0.5%: 6% which is the best gel seen. from pH test, dispersion test and adhesion test.Keywords: Ageratum Conyzoides L; gel; karbopol; hpmc; gelling agent AbstrakGelling agent merupakan basis dalam sediaan gel yang digunakan untuk mengentalkan dan menjadikan sediaan obat atau sediaan kosmetik tetap stabil. Bahan alam sudah banyak digunakan karenaberkhasiat sebagai obat. Salah satunya adalah tumbuhan bandotan (Ageratum Conyzoides L). Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui adanya pengaruh kombinasi gelling agent karbopol dan HPMC terhadap sifat fisik sediaan gel ekstrak etanol daun bandotan. Dalam penelitian ini dibuat 3 formulasi sediaan gel ekstrak etanol daun bandotan dengan perbedaan konsentrasi karbopol dan HMPC. Penelitian ini merupakan penelitian experimental dan menggunakan metode pengumpulan data kualitatif dan kuantitatif dari penelitian laboratorium. Metode ekstraksi yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode maserasi dengan pelarut etanol 96%. Sediaan gel yang telah jadi dilakukan pengujian diantaranya uji organoleptis, uji pH , uji daya lekat danuji daya sebar. Hasil dari penelitian ini menunjukkan bahwa terdapat pengaruh padagelling agentkombinasi karbopol dan HPMC terhadap sediaan gel ekstrak etanol daun bandotan (Ageratum conyzoides L) pada formula III dengan perbandingan gelling agent karbopol dan HPMC 0,5% : 6% yang merupakan gel paling baik dilihat dari uji pH , uji daya sebar dan daya lekat.Kata Kunci : Ageratum Conyzoides L; gel; karbopol; hpmc; gelling agent

2021 ◽  
Vol 7 (1) ◽  
pp. 97-103
Ike Widyaningrum ◽  
Sasi Purwanti

The formulation and physical characterization test of rosella extract cream preparations have been carried out using various types of non-ionic emulsifier concentration ratios (combination of tween 80 and span 80). Comparison of the concentrations of tween 80 and span 80 used in this study were 2%, 3%, and 4%. The aim of this study included organoleptic test, homogeneity test, pH test, viscosity test, dispersion test, and emulsion type test. The result obtained from the physical characterization test were the organoleptic tests for the three formulas showed the same organoleptic results, namely red color, characteristic smell of rosella, and semisolid consistency. Homogeinity test shows that the formula is homogenous. The pH test showed that F1 4,29; F2 4,6; F3 5. Viscosity test showed that F1 432,4 mPas; F2 434,3 mPas; 435,3 mPas. The dispersion test was carried out without using a load of 50 g, 100 g, and 200 g. the results shown form the spreadability test of three formulas were were F1 5 cm; 5,5 cm; and 6 cm; F2 6 cm; 6,35 cm; 7,25; and 7,5 cm. F3 6,25 cm; 7,5 cm; 7,75 cm; 8 cm. The emulsion type indicated by the three formulas is oil in water. Based on these results, it can be seen that the emulsifier concentration has an effect on PH, viscosity, and spreadibility. The higher the concentration of emulsifier used, the higher pH value, viscosity, and spreadibility.

Coatings ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (8) ◽  
pp. 925
Seungryul Yoo ◽  
Dongchan Seok ◽  
Yongho Jung ◽  
Kiyong Lee

Carbon powders exhibit electrical conductivity that causes the powders to agglomerate due to the applied electrostatic forces and discharges capacitance when used for surface treatments with plasma sources. To avoid this obstacle, a non-direct method is used with active gas that is generated through plasma. This active gas is in contact with the carbon powder so that the hydrophilic characteristics are formed. It is the carboxyl COO− functional group that causes hydrophilic improvement and it is shown to increase in the carbon surface after soft oxidation. The wettability of carbon powder gradually improves with more plasma treatment time. This is shown through a simple water dispersion test. Eventually, the dispersed aqueous solution gradually separates the powder, which either floats or sinks. The sample treated for 60 min is shown to continuously sustain dispersibility in water over a long period of time.

2021 ◽  
pp. 258-263
Reynelda Juliani Sagala ◽  
Lorensia Yolanda ◽  

Introduction: The ethanol extract from citronella grass (Cymbopogon nardus) has been found to contain saponins, phenolics (flavonoids), and polyphenols which have antibacterial activity. As a result, researchers developed an antiseptic gel that contains this ethanol extract. Aims: This study aims to find the optimum concentration of gelling agent required to make the gel and to use physical evaluations in order to understand whether combining gelling agents may increase the quality of the gel. Methods: The gel was made using a melting method, which mixed the base of gel with citronella ethanol extract at a temperature of 40oC to form a homogeneous phase. The gel evaluation was conducted using an organoleptic test, homogeneity test, dispersion test, pH test, and adhesion test. Results: The tests were carried out on 15 formulations respectively (R1, R2, and R3), and resulted in the production of clear, translucent yellow gel with a distinctive citronella grass odor. The homogeneity test showed that all formulations were homogeneous and contained no agglomerated particles. The gel dosage forms made with CMC-Na, gum arabic, and gelatin as gelling agents resulted in having a pH of 7 whilst gels made with a combination of gelling agents resulted in having a pH of 8. The combination of gum arabic and CMC-Na gelling agents showed an increase in spreadability of gel formulas at the same concentration of composition, of which the combinations were 1.25% gum arabic and 1.25% CMC-Na. The gel adhesion time was 0.2-2 minutes for all formula. Conclusion: Based on this test data, it can be concluded that the 15 gel formulations that resulted from this research are good and further testing can be performed to determine the most optimum and stable formula.

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