The quantified microstructural analysis carried out on a wrought and a hot isostatically-pressed (HIP) UNS S31803 duplex stainless steel (DSS) in the Part 1 publication of this study 1, established the significance of the three-dimensional (3D) distribution and morphology/geometry of the ferrite and austenite phases on hydrogen transport through two DSS product forms. This paper is a follow-on to Part 1, and focuses on the role of the other two key, interrelated components of hydrogen-induced stress cracking (HISC): stress/strain, and hydrogen. For this purpose, experimental hydrogen permeation measurements, and environmental fracture toughness testing (i.e. J R-curve testing) using conventional and non-standard single-edge notched bend test specimens were used. These particularly enabled interpretation of the hydrogen permeation and transport test data, and evaluation of suitability of environmental fracture toughness test methods for the assessment of resistance to HISC in DSSs. The latter is discussed, both from laboratory and component integrity perspectives, in the context of the findings from the 3D microstructural characterisation of the two phases, the role of stress raisers and their severity, and hydrogen transport through the bulk and from the surface.
Product designers need to fully understand consumers’ emotional preferences and responses for product forms to improve products. However, users and designers have different understandings and concepts in the product evaluation process, which will lead to cognitive asymmetry in the product design and evaluating process. This phenomenon prevents designers to grasp users’ needs, increasing the risk of product development failure. To this end, this paper proposes a product evaluation method that combines natural language processing techniques and fuzzy multi-criteria decision-making into a new integrated way to reduce the cognitive difference between users and designers, so as to solve the problem of cognitive asymmetry. This was done firstly by obtaining the review data of products from users on the Internet, based on a web crawler, and then constructing word vectors based on natural language processing techniques to realize the parametric expression of the Kansei image. Secondly, by using a statistical method to extract the product scheme that meets the preferences of users and designers, and then quantifying the relationship between the product form and Kansei image based on a grey relational analysis (GRA). Finally, by calculating the indicator weight based on the Entropy method and using the fuzzy TOPSIS method to explore the prioritization of the product design alternatives in view of the Kansei needs of users. Taking the smart capsule coffee machine as an example, the feasibility and effectiveness of this method are verified. In particular, the method proposed in this research can not only enable different cognitive subjects to achieve cognitive symmetry, but also filter out product forms that meet the cognitive needs of users. Moreover, this study provides a theoretical basis and practical significance for reducing the cognitive differences between cognitive subjects in the whole process of product design, and provides a systematic framework for the industry to effectively connect customer needs and product design decisions. At the same time, this study has introduced a new method for Kansei engineering.
Colostrum contains all essential nutrients for the neonate during the first days of life, with impacts that continue far beyond these first days. Bovine colostrum has been used for human consumption due to the high concentrations of bioactive proteins, vitamins, minerals, growth factors, as well as free and conjugated oligosaccharides. Processes involved in the preparation of bovine colostrum for human consumption play a pivotal role in preserving and maintaining the activity of the bioactive molecules. As bovine colostrum is a multifunctional food that offers a myriad of benefits for human health, assessing the main processes used in preparing it with both advantages and disadvantages is a crucial point to discuss. We discuss major processes effects for colostrum production on the nutritional value, some advanced technologies to preserve processed bovine colostrum and the end-product forms consumed by humans whether as dairy products or dietary supplements.
Modern trends in the creation of drinks provide for the use of various infusions, plant extracts, as well as vitamin and mineral complexes, organic acids and polysaccharides as part of their bases, which allows to ensure the normalization of physiological and metabolic processes in the human body and prevent a number of diseases and syndromes that lead to a decrease in working capacity. The main problems in the creation of various drinking forms are associated with the purification and preparation of water, the dissolution of components and their possible interaction with each other in the packaging unit during storage. Considering the above, it is relevant to create dry concentrates of health-improving drinks with long shelf life. The developed approach and technology is a promising form of drinks to improve the living standards of the population of Ukraine and other countries. The developed products will improve immunity, prevent a number of nutritional diseases, improve dietary intake during diet therapy and help restore micronutrient balance in the human body. It has been established that the physiological value of dry drinks according to the described production method is preserved in finished product forms (sticks with a metallized backing, sachets, sachets with a “zip-fastener” and a metallized inlay, plastic cans with a screw cap and with polymer backing as a control against preliminary opening) the entire recommended shelf life is from 12 to 24 months. The mixture is a convenient form for transportation and preparation. When diluted in liquid media (purified drinking water, mineral water, milk, fermented milk drinks, drinks based on plants, cereals, legumes, tea, coffee, cocoa), the specified functional properties are preserved and improved due to the activation of biologically active substances contained in the mixture and dilution media. The novelty of individual technological solutions and the indicated physiological and functional properties lies in the use of extracts of plants, fruits, berries, vegetables, as well as additionally introduced vitamins, mineral salts, amino acids, hydrolysates and isolates of plant proteins, natural bioenhancers and bioactiators with unique anti -age "effects.
Insomnia is a prevalent condition that presents itself at both the symptom and diagnostic levels. Although insomnia is one of the main reasons individuals seek medicinal cannabis, little is known about the profile of cannabinoid use or the perceived benefit of the use of cannabinoids in daily life.
We conducted a retrospective study of medicinal cannabis users to investigate the use profile and perceived efficacy of cannabinoids for the management of insomnia.
Data were collected using the Strainprint app, which allows medicinal cannabis users to log conditions and symptoms, track cannabis use, and monitor symptom severity pre- and postcannabis use. Our analyses examined 991 medicinal cannabis users with insomnia across 24,189 tracked cannabis use sessions. Sessions were analyzed, and both descriptive statistics and linear mixed-effects modeling were completed to examine use patterns and perceived efficacy.
Overall, cannabinoids were perceived to be efficacious across all genders and ages, and no significant differences were found among product forms, ingestion methods, or gender groups. Although all strain categories were perceived as efficacious, predominant indica strains were found to reduce insomnia symptomology more than cannabidiol (CBD) strains (estimated mean difference 0.59, SE 0.11; 95% CI 0.36-0.81; adjusted P<.001) and predominant sativa strains (estimated mean difference 0.74, SE 0.16; 95% CI 0.43-1.06; adjusted P<.001). Indica hybrid strains also presented a greater reduction in insomnia symptomology than CBD strains (mean difference 0.52, SE 0.12; 95% CI 0.29-0.74; adjusted P<.001) and predominant sativa strains (mean difference 0.67, SE 0.16; 95% CI 0.34-1.00; adjusted P=.002).
Medicinal cannabis users perceive a significant improvement in insomnia with cannabinoid use, and this study suggests a possible advantage with the use of predominant indica strains compared with predominant sativa strains and exclusively CBD in this population. This study emphasizes the need for randomized placebo-controlled trials assessing the efficacy and safety profile of cannabinoids for the treatment of insomnia.
At present, with the rapid development of the global economy and improvement of people’s life quality, demands for products are not only limited to the pursuit of practical functions. Instead, people also pursue certain ornamental values besides practical functions. Individualization also becomes an indispensable part. People’s sight enjoying demands cannot be satisfied by many conventional designs anymore. People start paying attention to the uniqueness of products. To this end, brand owners should help enhance the uniqueness of brand product design by some external resources, so as to attract more consumers. Each artist has their own typical artistic style and features. By cooperating with brands, they can bring unique artistic styles to products as well as artistic elements to improve the brand image. Therefore, more and more brands have extracted different artistic elements of artists and embody them in product design in recent years. Integration of these elements and brand design has brought great artistic effects, and the creative and innovative products motivate people’s purchase intention. In the essay, with an introduction to an American modern artist Daniel Arsham and his artistic style, namely fictional archaeological artistic style, the era background of cooperation between art and modern brands as well as their mutual integration forms are described. In the end, the research focuses on how Daniel combined fictional archaeological artistic style with different modern brands in the design and how he added modern technologies to diversify product forms.
Segmenting or often known as market segmentation is the act of classifying the market into groups with various categories. Sixty per cents (60%) of business failures are caused by failing to define the target market, their market potential, and failing to decide the right marketing concepts. Entrepreneurs tend to do more expansion in areas that they don't understand just because they are opportunists, making the most of people's fears and hesitancies. Marketing communication can be so powerful if it is combined with effective and efficient communication. For example, a communication on how to attract consumers or audiences to become aware, familiarized and interested in buying a product or service through communication channels. The current study is literatures study which analyses and thoroughly studies literatures to find data. In Islamic ethics, segmentation techniques in marketing communications are not justified using sexual appeal, emotional appeal, fear appeal, false testimony or pseudo-marketing research, or contribute to stupidity of mind and encourage overbuy. In the Islamic framework, these methods are unethical because they are used purely to exploit the basic instincts of consumers around the world with the aim of gaining profit and bigger market preys. In addition, Islamic ethics strictly prohibits stereotypes of women in advertising, and excessive use of "fantasy" either in product forms, services or other added value. Apart from innovation, Islamic marketing communication is also obliged to pay attention to efficiency. In order for marketing communications to be effective, we don't act on a whim. We can carry out marketing efficiency with high foresight to target markets that match the products and services we have.
In actual product development, the cognitive differences between users and designers make it difficult for the designed products to be recognized by users. To reduce the cognitive differences between these two design subjects, this paper proposes a method of cognitive matching of the design subjects. First, we use the relevant methods of Kansei engineering to quantify the Kansei image cognition of the two design subjects and construct a cognitive matching model of the design subjects with information entropy and the technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS). Second, according to the Kansei image, the Kansei image prototype cluster is constructed, and the representative Kansei image prototype is obtained. Then, we combine an artificial neural network (ANN) with a cognitive matching model of the design subjects to construct a product Kansei image evaluation system; this is used to evaluate the evolved forms. Finally, a product Kansei image form evolution system is constructed based on the genetic algorithm (GA). To some extent, the system simulates the cognitive matching process between designers and users in product design, helps designers to more accurately understand the cognitive trends of the two design subjects, and provides a theoretical basis for the intelligent design of product forms through the cognitive balance of multiple design subjects. This paper takes a beverage bottle as an example to verify the feasibility of the model through a comparative study.
The purpose of this study was to produce and develop a game-based soccer training model for children aged 6 - 8 years and to test its effect on improving children's basic abilities. This study uses the Research and Development (R&D) method from Borg and Gall with 10 stages; 1) research and information; 2) planning; 3) developing superior product forms; 4) preliminary field testing; 5) major product revisions; 6) main field testing; 7) operational product revisions; 8) operational field testing; 9) final product revision, and 10) dissemination and implementation. The subjects in the small group trial were 12 students of SSB Ina Football Soccer School Ciganjur, South Jakarta, and the subjects in the large group trial were 30 students, each consisting of 15 students of SSB Garuda Muda Batipuah, Tanah Datar, and 15 students of SSB Padang Laweh, Agam. . Whereas in the effective test using the subject as many as 30 students of SSB PS Marapi Batu Palano. The strength test of the game-based football training model for children aged 6 - 8 years using a basic motion test instrument, namely TGMD-2, consists of locomotor and manipulative basic motion tests. Data analysis obtained the mean value of the initial test 19.8 for basic locomotor motion and 7.4 for manipulative, and the final test mean value 34.9 for locomotor basic motion and 10.93 for manipulative. The significance test gets a t-count value of 26.87 for locomotor and 12.89 for manipulative, where each is greater than the t-table value of 1.699 at the 0.05 level so it can be denied that the game-based soccer training model has a positive impact and significant to the improvement of the locomotor and manipulative basic development of children aged 6 - 8 years. So that the conclusion that there are 33 game-based football training models is effective and significant for improving the basic motion of children aged 6 - 8 years and the training model is feasible to use and disseminate.