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2021 ◽  
Vol 448 ◽  
pp. 214180
Author(s):  
Maciej Ptak ◽  
Adam Sieradzki ◽  
Mantas Šimėnas ◽  
Mirosław Maczka

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
T. L. Hung ◽  
C. H. Huang ◽  
L. Z. Deng ◽  
M. N. Ou ◽  
Y. Y. Chen ◽  
...  

AbstractThe rich phenomena in the FeSe and related compounds have attracted great interests as it provides fertile material to gain further insight into the mechanism of high temperature superconductivity. A natural follow-up work was to look into the possibility of superconductivity in MnSe. We demonstrated in this work that high pressure can effectively suppress the complex magnetic characters of MnSe, and induce superconductivity with Tc ~ 5 K at pressure ~12 GPa confirmed by both magnetic and resistive measurements. The highest Tc is ~ 9 K (magnetic result) at ~35 GPa. Our observations suggest the observed superconductivity may closely relate to the pressure-induced structural change. However, the interface between the metallic and insulating boundaries may also play an important role to the pressure induced superconductivity in MnSe.


2021 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Author(s):  
M. Giovannoni ◽  
I. Larini ◽  
V. Scafati ◽  
A. Scortica ◽  
M. Compri ◽  
...  

Abstract Background Microalgae are coming to the spotlight due to their potential applications in a wide number of fields ranging from the biofuel to the pharmaceutical sector. However, several factors such as low productivity, expensive harvesting procedures and difficult metabolite extractability limit their full utilization at industrial scale. Similarly to the successful employment of enzymatic arsenals from lignocellulolytic fungi to convert lignocellulose into fermentable sugars for bioethanol production, specific algalytic formulations could be used to improve the extractability of lipids from microalgae to produce biodiesel. Currently, the research areas related to algivorous organisms, algal saprophytes and the enzymes responsible for the hydrolysis of algal cell wall are still little explored. Results Here, an algal trap method for capturing actively growing microorganisms was successfully used to isolate a filamentous fungus, that was identified by whole-genome sequencing, assembly and annotation as a novel Penicilliumsumatraense isolate. The fungus, classified as P.sumatraense AQ67100, was able to assimilate heat-killed Chlorellavulgaris cells by an enzymatic arsenal composed of proteases such as dipeptidyl- and amino-peptidases, β-1,3-glucanases and glycosidases including α- and β-glucosidases, β-glucuronidase, α-mannosidases and β-galactosidases. The treatment of C.vulgaris with the filtrate from P.sumatraense AQ67100 increased the release of chlorophylls and lipids from the algal cells by 42.6 and 48.9%, respectively. Conclusions The improved lipid extractability from C.vulgaris biomass treated with the fungal filtrate highlighted the potential of algal saprophytes in the bioprocessing of microalgae, posing the basis for the sustainable transformation of algal metabolites into biofuel-related compounds.


Foods ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (9) ◽  
pp. 2161
Author(s):  
Leeanny Caipo ◽  
Ana Sandoval ◽  
Betsabet Sepúlveda ◽  
Edwar Fuentes ◽  
Rodrigo Valenzuela ◽  
...  

Commercialization of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) requires a best before date recommended at up to 24 months after bottling, stored under specific conditions. Thus, it is expected that the product retains its chemical properties and preserves its ‘extra virgin’ category. However, inadequate storage conditions could alter the properties of EVOO. In this study, Arbequina EVOO was exposed to five storage conditions for up to one year to study the effects on the quality of the oil and the compounds responsible for flavor. Every 15 or 30 days, samples from each storage condition were analyzed, determining physicochemical parameters, the profiles of phenols, volatile compounds, α-tocopherol, and antioxidant capacity. Principal component analysis was utilized to better elucidate the relationships between the composition of EVOOs and the storage conditions. EVOOs stored at −23 and 23 °C in darkness and 23 °C with light, differed from the oils stored at 30 and 40 °C in darkness. The former was associated with a higher quantity of non-oxidized phenolic compounds and the latter with higher elenolic acid, oxidized oleuropein, and ligstroside derivatives, which also increased with storage time. (E)-2-nonenal (detected at trace levels in fresh oil) was selected as a marker of the degradation of Arbequina EVOO quality over time, with significant linear regressions identified for the storage conditions at 30 and 40 °C. Therefore, early oxidation in EVOO could be monitored by measuring (E)-2-nonenal levels.


JBMR Plus ◽  
2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Warusavithana Gunawardena Manori De Silva ◽  
Jeremy Zhuo Ru Han ◽  
Chen Yang ◽  
Wannit Tongkao‐On ◽  
Bianca Yuko McCarthy ◽  
...  

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 (18) ◽  
pp. 8276
Author(s):  
Oscar Vidal-Casanella ◽  
Oscar Núñez ◽  
Mercè Granados ◽  
Javier Saurina ◽  
Sonia Sentellas

Phenolic compounds such as phenolic acids, flavonoids, and stilbenes comprise an enormous family of bioactive molecules with a range of positive properties, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, or anti-inflammatory effects. As a result, plant extracts are often purified to recover phenolic compound-enriched fractions to be used to develop nutraceutical products or dietary supplements. In this article, we review the properties of some remarkable plant-based nutraceuticals in which the active molecules are mainly polyphenols and related compounds. Methods for the characterization of these extracts, the chemical determination of the bioactivities of key molecules, and the principal applications of the resulting products are discussed in detail.


2021 ◽  
Vol 118 (37) ◽  
pp. e2022857118
Author(s):  
Takayuki Teruya ◽  
Yung-Ju Chen ◽  
Hiroshi Kondoh ◽  
Yasuhide Fukuji ◽  
Mitsuhiro Yanagida

Dementia is caused by factors that damage neurons. We quantified small molecular markers in whole blood of dementia patients, using nontargeted liquid chromatography–mass spectroscopy (LC-MS). Thirty-three metabolites, classified into five groups (A to E), differed significantly in dementia patients, compared with healthy elderly subjects. Seven A metabolites present in plasma, including quinolinic acid, kynurenine, and indoxyl-sulfate, increased. Possibly they act as neurotoxins in the central nervous system (CNS). The remaining 26 compounds (B to E) decreased, possibly causing a loss of support or protection of the brain in dementia. Six B metabolites, normally enriched in red blood cells (RBCs), all contain trimethylated ammonium moieties. These metabolites include ergothioneine and structurally related compounds that have scarcely been investigated as dementia markers, validating the examination of RBC metabolites. Ergothioneine, a potent antioxidant, is significantly decreased in various cognition-related disorders, such as mild cognitive impairment and frailty. C compounds also include some oxidoreductants and are normally abundant in RBCs (NADP+, glutathione, adenosine triphosphate, pantothenate, S-adenosyl-methionine, and gluconate). Their decreased levels in dementia patients may also contribute to depressed brain function. Twelve D metabolites contains plasma compounds, such as amino acids, glycerophosphocholine, dodecanoyl-carnitine, and 2-hydroxybutyrate, which normally protect the brain, but their diminution in dementia may reduce that protection. Seven D compounds have been identified previously as dementia markers. B to E compounds may be critical to maintain the CNS by acting directly or indirectly. How RBC metabolites act in the CNS and why they diminish significantly in dementia remain to be determined.


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