Older Men And Women
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2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Akito Yoshiko ◽  
Takashi Kaji ◽  
Tsuyoshi Kozuka ◽  
Takayuki Sawazaki ◽  
Hiroshi Akima

Abstract Background Higher muscle echo intensity (EI) reflects higher content of fat and/or connective tissue within skeletal muscle, eventually inducing lower muscle strength, physical dysfunction, and metabolic impairment. Continuous exercise decreases muscle EI in older individuals; however, it is not well understood how several months’ rehabilitation exercise affects gradation-based EI. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 6 months of rehabilitation exercise on gradation-based higher and lower EI in older men and women. Methods Twenty-seven men and women (7 men, 20 women; age, 75.6 ± 6.4 years; height, 154.3 ± 8.5 cm; weight, 55.8 ± 9.7 kg) participated in this study. This study was a one-group before-and-after trial. They needed long-term care for activities of daily living. They performed rehabilitation exercises consisting of resistance exercises using a hydraulic resistance machine, stretching, and aerobic exercises using a recumbent bicycle once or twice a week for 6 months. B-mode ultrasonographic transverse image was taken from thigh muscles, e.g., rectus femoris, vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris. We calculated gradation-based cross-sectional area (CSA) from thigh muscles by dividing 256 greyscale level to 10 different components levels (e.g., 0–24, 25–49, 50–74, …, 200–224 and 225–249 a.u.). Results Lowest EI (e.g., 0–24 a.u.) CSA of thigh muscle was significantly increased after the exercise (0.3 ± 0.3 to 1.0 ± 0.8 cm2; P < 0.05). Middle to higher EI (e.g., 50–74, 75–99, 100–124, 125–149, 150–174, 175–199 and 200–224 a.u.) CSAs were significantly decreased from 23.0 to 68.7% after the exercise (P < 0.05). Conclusions Several months’ rehabilitation exercise affected both lower and higher EI in older men and women. This result suggests that rehabilitation exercise changes muscle composition by increasing contractile muscle tissue and decreasing fat and connective tissues.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Nadezhda Golovchanova ◽  
Christiana Owiredua ◽  
Katja Boersma ◽  
Henrik Andershed ◽  
Karin Hellfeldt

Presence of meaning in life is an important component of eudemonic wellbeing while aging. While subjective health and interpersonal relationships are among important sources of meaning for older adults, less research has explored the gender differences in the potential contribution of these sources to the presence of meaning in late life. The current study aims to examine the associations of frailty dimensions (daily activities, health problems, and psychosocial functioning) and social support with the presence of meaning in late life, and whether these associations differ for older men and women. The study employs the data from the 65+ and Safe Study – a cross-sectional survey of residents of senior apartments. The data were collected in 2019 in a mid-sized Swedish municipality (N=618; age range from 64 to 106years, 60.5% female). Results showed significant associations of health problems, psychosocial functioning, and social support with the presence of meaning in life. Further, the results demonstrated no statistically significant gender differences in the associations between frailty dimensions, social support, and presence of meaning. However, since the interaction between health problems and gender approached statistical significance, this association was further explored indicating a more detrimental role of health problems in relation to the presence of meaning in life among older men than among older women. Overall, the study highlights the importance of physical and psychosocial health and social support for the presence of meaning in life among older adults and warrants further research on possible gender differences in the relation between health problems and meaning in late life.

2021 ◽  
Ligiana Pires Corona ◽  
Flavia Cristina Drummond Andrade ◽  
Tiago Silva Alexandre ◽  
Tábatta Renata Pereira Brito ◽  
Daniella Pires Nunes ◽  

Abstract Background Anemia is the most common hematological abnormality among older adults, and it is associated with decreased physical performance. But the role of hemoglobin in the absence of anemia remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to assess the impact of hemoglobin levels on physical performance in Brazilian older adults without anemia. Methods The study is longitudinal in that it relies on two waves of the Saúde, Bem-Estar e Envelhecimento (SABE; Health, Well-being, and Aging) study: 2010 and 2015–2016. Mixed-effects linear regression was used to determine the effects of the hemoglobin concentrations on the Short Physical Performance Battery-SPPB over time among the 1,020 who had complete data and did not have anemia in 2010. In the follow-up, there were 562 without anemia. Analyses were stratified by sex. Results In analyses adjusted for age, education, grip strength, comorbidities, and body mass index, hemoglobin levels were positively associated with physical performance scores among older women (β = 0.15, p < 0.05) and men (β = 0.18, p < 0.05) without anemia. Conclusion Our study demonstrates that higher hemoglobin levels were associated with better physical performance among older men and women without anemia. This finding is important because, in clinical practice, most health professionals focus on the World Health Organization definition of anemia. Our study suggests the importance of hemoglobin levels among older adults, even those without anemia.

Estella Musacchio ◽  
Pierluigi Binotto ◽  
Fatima Silva-Netto ◽  
Egle Perissinotto ◽  
Leonardo Sartori

2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Shobhit Srivastava ◽  
Subhojit Shaw ◽  
Himanshu Chaurasia ◽  
Naina Purkayastha ◽  
T. Muhammad

Abstract Introduction Advancement in the field of gerontology has been concerned with the well-being of older adults in a family setup that is associated with caregiving and support. While family life and well-being are defined by emotion, caregiving, and support activities, dissatisfaction/discontent with living arrangements is a public health concern, which is increasing with a rise in the proportion of the older population in the country. The study examines the association of dissatisfaction with living arrangements with health outcomes among older men and women in India. Methods The present research used data from the 'Building a Knowledge Base on Population Aging in India'. The effective sample size for the analysis was 9181 older adults. Descriptive statistics and bivariate analysis were performed to present the preliminary estimates. For finding the association between various health outcomes over explanatory variables, binary logistic regression model was used separately for men and women. Results About 22.8% of men and 30.8% of women who were living alone were dissatisfied with their present living arrangement. It was revealed that both men and women who were dissatisfied with their present living arrangements had significantly higher odds of experiencing poor self-rated health [OR:4.45, 3.25 ~ 6.09 and OR:3.32, 2.54 ~ 4.34], low psychological health [OR: 2.15, 1.61 ~ 2.86 and OR: 1.99, 1.57 ~ 2.53], low subjective well-being [OR: 3.37, 2.54 ~ 4.45 and OR: 3.03, 2.36 ~ 3.38], low ADL [OR: 1.77, 1.2 ~ 2.62 and OR: 1.59, 1.17 ~ 2.18, low IADL] [OR: 1.32, 1.03 ~ 1.69 and OR: 1.57, 1.24 ~ 1.98] and low cognitive ability [OR: 1.26, 0.98 ~ 1.61 and OR:1.44, 1.13 ~ 1.82] in comparison to their counterpart from men and women respectively. Conclusion It is found that dissatisfaction with the living arrangement of older men and women is negatively associated with major health outcomes. Hence, appropriate policies and programs must be developed to promote increased family care and support and an improved residential environment that would create a feeling of comfort and happiness among older individuals.

Ballesteros JM ◽  
Struijk E ◽  
Machado-Fragua MD ◽  
Ortolá R ◽  

Background: Added sugar intake is a key contributor to the development of several chronic diseases. We aimed to investigate the prospective association between added sugar intake and the risk of falling among older men and women. Methods: We analyzed data from 2,154 Spanish adults aged ≥65 years from the Seniors-ENRICA cohort. Baseline food consumption was collected in 2008-2010 with a validated diet history, in which 155 foods were identified to contain added sugar. The occurrence of falls was ascertained up to 2015. Analyses were conducted with Cox models adjusted for potential confounders, including nutritional status, chronic diseases and sleeping medication. Results: Over 7.2y of follow-up, 605 participants experienced ≥1 fall and 527 suffered injurious falls. The hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) for ≥1 fall across quintiles of added sugar intake were: 1.0, 1.09 (0.83-1.42), 1.07 (0.82-1.40), 1.15 (0.88-1.52), and 1.48 (1.12-1.96); p-trend 0.03. The corresponding figures for injurious falls were: 1.0, 1.17 (0.88-1.56), 1.06 (0.79- 1.41), 1.13 (0.84-1.52), and 1.40 (1.03-1.90); p-trend 0.10. These associations did not vary over strata of age, protein, calcium or vitamin intake, diet quality, physical activity or alcohol consumption. No differences were found when solid and liquid sources of added sugars were examined separately. Conclusions: Intake of added sugars was associated with a higher risk of falling in older people. This adds to the evidence to support interventions to reduce added sugar intake.

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