anticholinergic burden
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2022 ◽  
Mohammad Rababa ◽  
Audai A Hayajneh ◽  
Sami Al-Rawashdeh ◽  
Nahedh Alawneh

Aim: This study examined the use of analgesics and associated factors among nursing home residents (NHRs). Materials & methods: A descriptive correlational design and a convenience sample of 209 NHRs receiving analgesics was used in this study. Results: Higher use of analgesics was noted among NHRs without cognitive impairment (p < 0.001), those with higher anticholinergic burden scores (p = 0.002) and those with a higher average number of oral pills taken daily (p = 0.045). Conclusion: These findings contribute to a better understanding of the prevalence and associated factors of analgesic use, which will inform the development and application of evidence-based pain practice and guidelines in nursing homes in Jordan and beyond.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Rafaella Georgiou ◽  
Demetris Lamnisos ◽  
Konstantinos Giannakou

Objective: Cognitive impairment in schizophrenia forms the key cause of the disease's disability, leading to serious functional, and socioeconomic implications. Dopaminergic-cholinergic balance is considered essential to cognitive performance in schizophrenia and patients are often treated with many drugs with anticholinergic properties. This study aims to examine the cognitive impact of anticholinergic burden in patients with schizophrenia.Methods: A systematic literature review was performed on English-language studies published on PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science, from inception to June 2021, to identify research studies that examined the effect of anticholinergic load on cognition in clinically stable patients with schizophrenia. No restrictions on study design, age of participants, or geographical distribution were applied. Two researchers performed independently the screening and shortlisting of the eligible articles. A narrative synthesis of the main characteristics and findings of studies included was reported.Results: In total, 17 articles of varying methodological design met the inclusion criteria. Three of them found statistically significant improvement in cognition after anticholinergic tapering without adverse effects. Thirteen studies found a statistically significant association between high anticholinergic burden and cognitive impairment (neurocognitive composite scores and individual cognitive domains such as learning and memory, executive function, processing speed), apart from a study, related to the specific characteristics of clozapine.Conclusions: Medication with increased anticholinergic load has been found in most of the studies to negatively affect neurocognitive performance of patients with schizophrenia. However, the clinical and methodological heterogeneity of studies included limit our interpretation and conclusions.

GeroScience ◽  
2021 ◽  
Ingo Kilimann ◽  
Diana Wucherer ◽  
Till Ittermann ◽  
Henry Völzke ◽  
Robin Bülow ◽  

AbstractMany medications of different indications have a relevant anticholinergic activity. The anticholinergic burden of medication has been shown to have significant effects on the cognition and the risk for cognitive impairment and dementia particularly in older patients. So far, most of the studies used data from geriatric patients and the effect of the anticholinergic burden on brain structures is still unexplored. Our study aimed to analyze possible associations of hippocampus and cholinergic basal forebrain volumes as vulnerable brain structures for the development of dementia and the anticholinergic burden in a population-based cohort of non-demented participants spanning the adult age range from 21 to 80 years. We analyzed associations between medication-related anticholinergic burden and structural MRI volumes from participants (n = 3087, 52.2% female) of the population-based “Study of Health in Pomerania” (SHIP). Anticholinergic burden was obtained from the current medication plan using the Anticholinergic Burden Scale (ACB). All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, education, and total intracranial volume. We found statistically significant associations between the ACB and the left and right hippocampus volume but not for the basal forebrain cholinergic system. Complementary voxel-based analysis across all participants revealed FWE-corrected (p =  < 0.05) clusters in the temporo-parietal regions reaching into frontal areas, showing reduced volumes with higher ACB scores. We identified an association between anticholinergic burden of medication on hippocampal volume suggesting a potential inverse effect of such medication. This association highlights the importance of a careful prescription of medication with anticholinergic activity at any adult age.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (Supplement_1) ◽  
pp. 936-936
Jure Mur ◽  
Simon Cox ◽  
Riccardo Marioni ◽  
Tom Russ ◽  
Graciela Muniz-Terrera

Abstract Previous studies on the association between the long-term use of anticholinergic drugs and dementia report heterogenous results. This variability could be due to, among other factors, different anticholinergic scales used, and differential effects of distinct classes of anticholinergic drugs. Here, we use 171,775 participants of UK Biobank with linked GP prescription records to calculate the cumulative annual anticholinergic burden (ACB) and ascertain dementia diagnoses through GP- and inpatient records. We then use Cox proportional hazards models to compare 13 anticholinergic scales and anticholinergic burden (ACB) due to different classes of drugs in their association with dementia. We find dementia to be more strongly predicted by ACB than by polypharmacy across most anticholinergic scales (standardised ORs range: 1.027-1.125). Furthermore, not only the baseline ACB, but the slope of the longitudinal trajectory of ACB (HR=1.094; 95% CI: 1.068-1.119) is predictive of dementia. However, the association between ACB and dementia holds only for some classes of drugs – especially antidepressants, antiepileptics, and high-ceiling antidiuretics. Moreover, we do not find a clear relationship between reported anticholinergic potency and dementia risk. The heterogeneity in findings on the association between ACB and dementia may in part be due to different effects for different classes of drugs. Future studies should establish such differences in more detail and further examine the practicality of using a general measure of anticholinergic potency as it relates to the risk of dementia.

2021 ◽  
Vol 17 (S10) ◽  
Adriana Nancy Medeiros dos Santos ◽  
Andre R Brunoni ◽  
Alessandra C Goulart ◽  
Maria Carmen Viana ◽  
Isabela Benseñor ◽  

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