Cancer Inflammation
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2021 ◽  
Vol 34 (Supplement_1) ◽  
Ching Tzao ◽  
Li-Yuan Cheng ◽  
Chien-Chih Chang

Abstract   We aimed to investigate the role of tumor associated macrophage (TAM) in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in esophageal squamous cell cancer (ESCC). Methods Expression of CD68 and EMT markers was determined in resected ESCC tumors by immunohistochemistry with clinicopathologic correlation. M2-polarized macrophages were generated from human U937 cells treated with 50 ng/ml phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) while cultured with PMA plus Th2 cytokines. KYSE-510 ESCC cell was co-cultured with M2 macrophages, followed by determination of expression for EMT markers by Western blot. In situ expression of E-cadherin and vimentin was determined using immunofluorescence staining Cell proliferation, invasion and extracellular matrix (ECM) adhesion assays were performed to determine phenotypic characteristics of cultured ESCC cells. Results High expression of CD68 in resected ESCC correlated with worse survival. In addition, expression of CD68 in resected ESCC tumors correlated positively with expression of Snail and vimentin but inversely with E-cadherin. Compared with KYSE-510 cells cultured alone, those co-cultured with M2 macrophage showed higher expression of snail, vimentin, and fibronectin with a more spindle-shaped morphology, suggesting a mesenchymal differentiation. Further, cell proliferation, invasion and ECM adhesion were significantly more pronounced in M2 macrophage co-cultured ESCC cells. Conclusion EMT markers correlated with the number of TAM within resected ESCC tumors, suggesting an association of cancer inflammation in promoting EMT in ESCC. A link between cancer inflammation mediated by TAM deemed to be supported by increased expression of EMT markers and phenotypic changes related to EMT in ESCC cells co-cultured with M2 macrophage. Our results suggest an important role of TAM in promoting EMT in tumor microenvironment with regards to cancer inflammation in ESCC.

Marine Drugs ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 19 (8) ◽  
pp. 417
Dan-dan Li ◽  
Ying Wang ◽  
Eun La Kim ◽  
Jongki Hong ◽  
Jee H. Jung

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) expression has been implicated in pathological states such as cancer, inflammation, diabetes, and neurodegeneration. We isolated natural PPAR agonists—eight 2,5-diketopiperazines—from the jellyfish-derived fungus Aspergillus flavus. Cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) was the most potent PPAR-γ activator among the eight 2,5-DKPs identified. Cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) activated PPAR-γ in Ac2F rat liver cells and SH-SY5Y human neuroblastoma cells. The neuroprotective effect of this partial PPAR-γ agonist was examined using the 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay, lactate dehydrogenase release, and the Hoechst 33342 staining assay in SH-SY5Y cells. Our findings revealed that cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) reduced hydrogen peroxide-induced apoptosis as well as the generation of reactive oxygen species. Rhodamine 123 staining and western blotting revealed that cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) prevented the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibited the activation of mitochondria-related apoptotic proteins, such as caspase 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase. Moreover, cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) inhibited the activation and translocation of nuclear factor-kappa B. Thus, the partial PPAR-γ agonist cyclo-(L-Pro-L-Phe) demonstrated potential neuroprotective activity against oxidative stress-induced neurodegeneration in SH-SY5Y cells.

Cells ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (7) ◽  
pp. 1738
Manuela Del Cornò ◽  
Rosaria Varì ◽  
Beatrice Scazzocchio ◽  
Barbara Varano ◽  
Roberta Masella ◽  

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the major threatening diseases worldwide, being the third most common cancer, and a leading cause of death, with a global incidence expected to increase in the coming years. Enhanced adiposity, particularly visceral fat, is a major risk factor for the development of several tumours, including CRC, and represents an important indicator of incidence, survival, prognosis, recurrence rates, and response to therapy. The obesity-associated low-grade chronic inflammation is thought to be a key determinant in CRC development, with the adipocytes and the adipose tissue (AT) playing a significant role in the integration of diet-related endocrine, metabolic, and inflammatory signals. Furthermore, AT infiltrating immune cells contribute to local and systemic inflammation by affecting immune and cancer cell functions through the release of soluble mediators. Among the factors introduced with diet and enriched in AT, fatty acids (FA) represent major players in inflammation and are able to deeply regulate AT homeostasis and immune cell function through gene expression regulation and by modulating the activity of several transcription factors (TF). This review summarizes human studies on the effects of dietary FA on AT homeostasis and immune cell functions, highlighting the molecular pathways and TF involved. The relevance of FA balance in linking diet, AT inflammation, and CRC is also discussed. Original and review articles were searched in PubMed without temporal limitation up to March 2021, by using fatty acid as a keyword in combination with diet, obesity, colorectal cancer, inflammation, adipose tissue, immune cells, and transcription factors.

2021 ◽  
Vol 108 (Supplement_5) ◽  
M I Ita ◽  
J H Wang ◽  
A Toulouse ◽  
C H Lim ◽  
N Fanning ◽  

Abstract Introduction Research into the potential utility of plasma-derived circulating cell-free nucleic acids as non-invasive adjuncts to radiological imaging has been occasioned by the invasive nature of brain tumour biopsy. Circulating-cell-free messenger RNAs are short fragments of RNA present in blood. The objective of this study was to determine whether significant differences exist in the plasma transcriptomic profile of glioma patients relative to differences in their tumour characteristics, and also whether any observed differences were representative of synchronously obtained glioma samples and TCGA glioma derived RNA. Method Blood samples were collected from twenty-nine patients prior to tumour resection. Plasma ccfmRNA and glioma derived RNA were extracted and profiled. Result BCL2L1, CXCL5, GZMB, HLA-A, HLA-C, IRF1, MYD88, TGFB1, TLR2, and TP53 genes were significantly over-expressed in glioma (high-grade-glioma-HGG and low-grade-glioma-LGG) patients (P < 0.05, versus control). BCL2L1, GZMB and HLA-A genes were significantly over-expressed in HGG patients (P < 0.05, versus LGG patients). There was positive correlation between the magnitude of fold change of differentially expressed genes in plasma and glioma derived RNA (Spearman r = 0.6344, n = 14, P = 0.017), and with the mean FPKM of TCGA glioma derived RNA samples (Spearman r = 0.4614, n = 19, P = 0.047). There was positive correlation between glioma radiographic tumour burden and the magnitude of fold change of CSF3 gene (r = 0.9813, n = 20, P < 0.001). Conclusion We identified significant differential expression of genes involved in cancer inflammation and immunity among patients with different glioma grades, and we identified positive correlation between the plasma transcriptomic profile and tumour samples, and with TCGA glioma derived RNA. Take-home Message The plasma transcriptomic profile of glioma patients appears to be representative of synchronously obtained glioma samples.

2021 ◽  
Vol 11 ◽  
Die Lv ◽  
Hongli Chen ◽  
Yun Feng ◽  
Bomiao Cui ◽  
Yingzhu Kang ◽  

The protein kinase D (PKD) family is a family of serine-threonine kinases that are members of the calcium/calmodulin-dependent kinase (CaMK) superfamily. PKDs have been increasingly implicated in multiple pivotal cellular processes and pathological conditions. PKD dysregulation is associated with several diseases, including cancer, inflammation, and obesity. Over the past few years, small-molecule inhibitors have emerged as alternative targeted therapy with fewer adverse side effects than currently available chemotherapy, and these specifically targeted inhibitors limit non-specific toxicities. The successful development of PKD inhibitors would significantly suppress the growth and proliferation of various cancers and inhibit the progression of other diseases. Various PKD inhibitors have been studied in the preclinical setting. In this context, we summarize the PKD inhibitors under investigation and their application for different kinds of diseases.

2021 ◽  
Brian M Petersen ◽  
Sophia A Ulmer ◽  
Emily R Rhodes ◽  
Matias F Gutierrez Gonzalez ◽  
Brandon J Dekosky ◽  

Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are an important class of therapeutics used to treat cancer, inflammation, and infectious diseases. Identifying highly developable mAb sequences in silico could greatly reduce the time and cost required for therapeutic mAb development. Here, we present position-specific scoring matrices (PSSMs) for antibody framework mutations developed using natural human antibody repertoire sequences. Our analysis shows that natural human antibody repertoire-based PSSMs are consistent across individuals and demonstrate high correlations between related germlines. We show that mutations in existing therapeutic antibodies can be accurately predicted solely from natural human antibody sequence data. mAbs developed using humanized mice had more human-like FR mutations than mAbs originally developed by hybridoma technology. A quantitative assessment of entire framework regions of therapeutic antibodies revealed that there may be potential for improving the properties of existing therapeutic antibodies by incorporating additional mutations of high frequency in natural human antibody repertoires. In addition, high frequency mutations in natural human antibody repertoires were predicted in silico to reduce immunogenicity in therapeutic mAbs due to the removal of T cell epitopes. Several therapeutic mAbs were identified to have common, universally high-scoring framework mutations, and molecular dynamics simulations revealed the mechanistic basis for the evolutionary selection of these mutations. Our results suggest that natural human antibody repertoires may be useful as predictive tools to guide mAb development in the future.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (12) ◽  
pp. 6491
Giulia Chinetti ◽  
Jaap G. Neels

Vascular calcification is defined as an inappropriate accumulation of calcium depots occurring in soft tissues, including the vascular wall. Growing evidence suggests that vascular calcification is an actively regulated process, sharing similar mechanisms with bone formation, implicating both inhibitory and inducible factors, mediated by osteoclast-like and osteoblast-like cells, respectively. This process, which occurs in nearly all the arterial beds and in both the medial and intimal layers, mainly involves vascular smooth muscle cells. In the vascular wall, calcification can have different clinical consequences, depending on the pattern, localization and nature of calcium deposition. Nuclear receptors are transcription factors widely expressed, activated by specific ligands that control the expression of target genes involved in a multitude of pathophysiological processes, including metabolism, cancer, inflammation and cell differentiation. Some of them act as drug targets. In this review we describe and discuss the role of different nuclear receptors in the control of vascular calcification.

Massimiliano Camilli ◽  
Giulia Iannaccone ◽  
Giulia La Vecchia ◽  
Luigi Cappannoli ◽  
Roberto Scacciavillani ◽  

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