metabolic conditions
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2022 ◽  
Vol 7 ◽  
pp. 100151
Alex Gonzalez-Chagolla ◽  
Antonio Olivas-Martinez ◽  
Jesus Ruiz-Manriquez ◽  
Maximiliano Servín-Rojas ◽  
Eric Kauffman-Ortega ◽  

2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Aswir Abd Rashed ◽  
Fatin Saparuddin ◽  
Devi-Nair Gunasegavan Rathi ◽  
Nur Najihah Mohd Nasir ◽  
Ezarul Faradianna Lokman

Simple lifestyle changes can prevent or delay the onset of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). In addition to maintaining a physically active way of life, the diet has become one of the bases in managing TD2M. Due to many studies linking the ability of resistant starch (RS) to a substantial role in enhancing the nutritional quality of food and disease prevention, the challenge of incorporating RS into the diet and increasing its intake remains. Therefore, we conducted this review to assess the potential benefits of RS on metabolic biomarkers in pre-diabetes and diabetes adults based on available intervention studies over the last decade. Based on the conducted review, we observed that RS intake correlates directly to minimize possible effects through different mechanisms for better control of pre-diabetic and diabetic conditions. In most studies, significant changes were evident in the postprandial glucose and insulin incremental area under the curve (iAUC). Comparative evaluation of RS consumption and control groups also showed differences with inflammatory markers such as TNF-α, IL-1β, MCP-1, and E-selectin. Only RS2 and RS3 were extensively investigated and widely reported among the five reported RS types. However, a proper comparison and conclusion are deemed inappropriate considering the variations observed with the study duration, sample size, subjects and their metabolic conditions, intervention doses, and the intervention base products. In conclusion, this result provides interesting insights into the potential use of RS as part of a sustainable diet in diabetes management and should be further explored in terms of the mechanism involved.

2022 ◽  
Vol 22 (1) ◽  
Nasser Sakran ◽  
Yitka Graham ◽  
Tadeja Pintar ◽  
Wah Yang ◽  
Radwan Kassir ◽  

AbstractThe alarming rise in the worldwide prevalence of obesity and associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) have reached epidemic portions. Diabetes in its many forms and T2DM have different physiological backgrounds and are difficult to classify. Bariatric surgery (BS) is considered the most effective treatment for obesity in terms of weight loss and comorbidity resolution, improves diabetes, and has been proven superior to medical management for the treatment of diabetes. The term metabolic surgery (MS) describes bariatric surgical procedures used primarily to treat T2DM and related metabolic conditions. MS is the most effective means of obtaining substantial and durable weight loss in individuals with obesity. Originally, BS was used as an alternative weight-loss therapy for patients with severe obesity, but clinical data revealed its metabolic benefits in patients with T2DM. MS is more effective than lifestyle or medical management in achieving glycaemic control, sustained weight loss, and reducing diabetes comorbidities. New guidelines for T2DM expand the use of MS to patients with a lower body mass index.Evidence has shown that endocrine changes resulting from BS translate into metabolic benefits that improve the comorbid conditions associated with obesity, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, and T2DM. Other changes include bacterial flora rearrangement, bile acids secretion, and adipose tissue effect.This review aims to examine the physiological mechanisms in diabetes, risks for complications, the effects of bariatric and metabolic surgery and will shed light on whether diabetes should be reclassified.

2022 ◽  
Vol 23 (1) ◽  
pp. 520
Matúš Soták ◽  
Meenu Rohini Rajan ◽  
Madison Clark ◽  
Christina Biörserud ◽  
Ville Wallenius ◽  

Obesity is associated with extensive expansion and remodeling of the adipose tissue architecture, including its microenvironment and extracellular matrix (ECM). Although obesity has been reported to induce adipose tissue fibrosis, the composition of the ECM under healthy physiological conditions has remained underexplored and debated. Here, we used a combination of three established techniques (picrosirius red staining, a colorimetric hydroxyproline assay, and sensitive gene expression measurements) to evaluate the status of the ECM in metabolically healthy lean (MHL) and metabolically unhealthy obese (MUO) subjects. We investigated ECM deposition in the two major human adipose tissues, namely the omental and subcutaneous depots. Biopsies were obtained from the same anatomic region of respective individuals. We found robust ECM deposition in MHL subjects, which correlated with high expression of collagens and enzymes involved in ECM remodeling. In contrast, MUO individuals showed lower expression of ECM components but elevated levels of ECM cross-linking and adhesion proteins, e.g., lysyl oxidase and thrombospondin. Our data suggests that subcutaneous fat is more prone to express proteins involved in ECM remodeling than omental adipose tissues. We conclude that a more dynamic ability to deposit and remodel ECM may be a key signature of healthy adipose tissue, and that subcutaneous fat may adapt more readily to changing metabolic conditions than omental fat.

Olga Gómez ◽  
Giuliana Perini-Villanueva ◽  
Andrea Yuste ◽  
José Antonio Rodríguez-Navarro ◽  
Enric Poch ◽  

Autophagy is a fine-tuned proteolytic pathway that moves dysfunctional/aged cellular components into the lysosomal compartment for degradation. Over the last 3 decades, global research has provided evidence for the protective role of autophagy in different brain cell components. Autophagic capacities decline with age, which contributes to the accumulation of obsolete/damaged organelles and proteins and, ultimately, leads to cellular aging in brain tissues. It is thus well-accepted that autophagy plays an essential role in brain homeostasis, and malfunction of this catabolic system is associated with major neurodegenerative disorders. Autophagy function can be modulated by different types of stress, including glycative stress. Glycative stress is defined as a cellular status with abnormal and accelerated accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs). It occurs in hyperglycemic states, both through the consumption of high-sugar diets or under metabolic conditions such as diabetes. In recent years, glycative stress has gained attention for its adverse impact on brain pathology. This is because glycative stress stimulates insoluble, proteinaceous aggregation that is linked to the malfunction of different neuropathological proteins. Despite the emergence of new literature suggesting that autophagy plays a major role in fighting glycation-derived damage by removing cytosolic AGEs, excessive glycative stress might also negatively impact autophagic function. In this mini-review, we provide insight on the status of present knowledge regarding the role of autophagy in brain physiology and pathophysiology, with an emphasis on the cytoprotective role of autophagic function to ameliorate the adverse effects of glycation-derived damage in neurons, glia, and neuron-glia interactions.

Nikhil Kaushik ◽  
Dhara Vaghani ◽  
Arpita Jaiswal Singam

Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a real pregnancy trap, wherein ladies without as of late dissected diabetes encourage constant high blood glucose during pregnancy. Diabetes in gestation is a condition where highly increase in the blood glucose level at the period of pregnancy and impacts pregnant ladies who haven't been broke down with diabetes. Diabetes mellitus in gestational period is conceivably most broadly perceived serious the pregnant conditions, with long and short stretch outcomes for mothers, hatchlings & babies. The chiefs & remedies which are wanted to gain most ideal control of glycemia, and while ignoring hypoglycaemia & make sure of fetal and maternal prosperity. This incorporates direct changes, food & treatment, and when considered fundamental; For possible opposing outcomes, simultaneously with fetal and maternal perception was made. The response intends to develop choices for gestational diabetes management treatment pharmacologically. Everyone played out a wide composing different review of examinations, conveyed in the latest fifty year , focusing on  treatment for Gestational diabetes mellitus pharmacologically, overseeing security & ampleness, for maternal & fetal unpleasantness results; similarly like disillusionment & accomplishment in developing legitimate control of glucose and metabolic conditions . Medical treatment orally is a secured & convincing treatment system for GDM and in specific conditions may fill in as first-line treatment while supporting changes misfire. Right when oral experts disregard to set up control of glucose then imbuements of insulin are added supposedly. Choosing oral treatment which is the best in unsure, disregarding the way that it seems, by all accounts, to be that metformin is fairly better compared to glyburide, in specific perspectives. Concerning parenteral treatment, all recorded insulins in the specified article need to be considered both ensured & practical so that the treatment of high blood glucose can be treated in pregnancy. Fundamentally, a prevalent security profile, with near feasibility is recorded for most analogs. As GDM normality climbs, there is a prerequisite for powerful noticing and treatment for patients.

Nenden Senina Rindaha ◽  
Sulina Yanti Wibawa ◽  
Yuyun Widaningsih ◽  
Rachmawati A. Muhiddin

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is defined as a renal failure that has lasted for more than three months. Hemodialysis is thetype of kidney replacement therapy that is mostly used, and blood gas analysis can be used to identify this condition. Thisstudy is to compare the blood gas analysis on pre-and post-dialysis in patients with CKD using pH, PaCO , PaO , HCO , SO , 2 2 3 2and BE as markers of improvement in the patients'condition. The population was all patients diagnosed with CKD andhemodialysis at Wahidin Sudirohusodo Hospital, and eligible according to the criteria in this study. The sample size wasdetermined using Federer's calculation, and the statistical analysis using paired T-test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test withα=0.05. Subjects were 34 patients, consisting of 18 females (52.9%) and 16 males (47.1%). Hemodialysis had the mostsignificant impact on the PaO and SaO variables. Relation between PaO and SaO was illustrated in a sigmoid curve. 2 2 2 2Oxygen-bound hemoglobin increased after the first molecule was bound. An almost full PaO pressure will cause a slight 2increase in SaO . Whereas at <90% saturation, a slight decrease in PaO will cause a large decrease in SaO . PaO and SaO 2 2 2 2 2determine cardiac efficiency and the markers for assessing the metabolic conditions of the lungs and heart that correlatewith oxygen. Chronic kidney disease patients experienced improved conditions after undergoing hemodialysis withincreased blood gas values, especially in PaO and SaO .

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (24) ◽  
pp. 5883
Riccardo Sarzani ◽  
Massimiliano Allevi ◽  
Federico Giulietti ◽  
Chiara Di Pentima ◽  
Serena Re ◽  

Since the first months of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, several specific physiologic traits, such as male sex and older age, or health conditions, such as overweight/obesity, arterial hypertension, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus, have been found to be highly prevalent and associated with increased risk of adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients. All these cardiovascular morbidities are widespread in the population and often coexist, thus identifying a common patient phenotype, characterized by a hyper-activation of the “classic” renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and mediated by the binding of angiotensin II (Ang II) to the type 1-receptor. At the same time, the RAS imbalance was proved to be crucial in the genesis of lung injury after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, where angiotensin-converting-enzyme-2 (ACE2) is not only the receptor for SARS-CoV-2, but its down-regulation through internalization and shedding, caused by the virus binding, leads to a further dysregulation of RAS by reducing angiotensin 1-7 (Ang 1-7) production. This focused narrative review will discuss the main available evidence on the role played by cardiovascular and metabolic conditions in severe COVID-19, providing a possible pathophysiological link based on the disequilibrium between the two opposite arms of RAS.

Heart ◽  
2021 ◽  
pp. heartjnl-2021-320047
Tom Norris ◽  
Cameron Razieh ◽  
Francesco Zaccardi ◽  
Thomas Yates ◽  
Nazrul Islam ◽  

ObjectiveUsing a large national database of people hospitalised with COVID-19, we investigated the contribution of cardio-metabolic conditions, multi-morbidity and ethnicity on the risk of in-hospital cardiovascular complications and death.MethodsA multicentre, prospective cohort study in 302 UK healthcare facilities of adults hospitalised with COVID-19 between 6 February 2020 and 16 March 2021. Logistic models were used to explore associations between baseline patient ethnicity, cardiometabolic conditions and multimorbidity (0, 1, 2, >2 conditions), and in-hospital cardiovascular complications (heart failure, arrhythmia, cardiac ischaemia, cardiac arrest, coagulation complications, stroke), renal injury and death.ResultsOf 65 624 patients hospitalised with COVID-19, 44 598 (68.0%) reported at least one cardiometabolic condition on admission. Cardiovascular/renal complications or death occurred in 24 609 (38.0%) patients. Baseline cardiometabolic conditions were independently associated with increased odds of in-hospital complications and this risk increased in the presence of cardiometabolic multimorbidity. For example, compared with having no cardiometabolic conditions, 1, 2 or ≥3 conditions was associated with 1.46 (95% CI 1.39 to 1.54), 2.04 (95% CI 1.93 to 2.15) and 3.10 (95% CI 2.92 to 3.29) times higher odds of any cardiovascular/renal complication, respectively. A similar pattern was observed for all-cause death. Compared with the white group, the South Asian (OR 1.19, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.29) and black (OR 1.53 to 95% CI 1.37 to 1.72) ethnic groups had higher risk of any cardiovascular/renal complication.ConclusionsIn hospitalised patients with COVID-19, cardiovascular complications or death impacts just under half of all patients, with the highest risk in those of South Asian or Black ethnicity and in patients with cardiometabolic multimorbidity.

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