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BMC Urology ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Daniel McClelland ◽  
Luke P. O’Connor ◽  
John Barnard ◽  
Ali Hajiran ◽  
Chad Crigger ◽  

Abstract Background We sought to determine if participating in a surgical training session using perfused fresh human cadavers (PFHC) had a positive effect on urology residents’ confidence in performing open and endoscopic procedures. Methods Urology residents at our institution participated in a surgical training session in the West Virginia University Fresh Tissue Training Program, which utilized fresh cadavers with vascular perfusion. The session consisted of performing different urologic procedures (open and endoscopic) on the perfused fresh human cadavers (PFHC). Residents were given a survey to rate their confidence in different urologic procedures before, after, and 6 months after the session. Each procedure on the survey had 3–6 questions associated with it, with scores ranging from 0 (no confidence) to 4 (great confidence). Scores for each procedure before and after the session were compared. Results Six residents participated in the session. There was an increase in the score for every procedure performed after the session. Scores at 6 month follow up remained higher than the pre-session scores. Conclusion PFHCs offer an excellent opportunity to teach a wide variety of urologic procedures to residents. Incorporation of PFHCs may be very useful in urologic training, and further studies on its use are warranted.

Correy S Hildebrand ◽  
Valerie J Cervenka ◽  
Roger D Moon ◽  
Robin E Thomson

Abstract The geographic ranges of forensically informative taxa on decomposing remains vary across regions. To determine which calliphorid flies would be expected to occur in Minnesota and the upper Midwest, individual freshly killed pig carcasses (Sus scrofa L.) were placed in the field in St. Paul, MN, at monthly intervals from May to October 2017 and May to September 2018. Aerial nets, forceps, and pitfall traps were used to collect and preserve associated adult and immature insects. Sixty-four forensically informative insect taxa were recorded, representing three insect orders and 14 families. Ten informative calliphorid species were recorded on carcasses, adding four new Minnesota records. Comparison of species lists from 26 human forensic cases indicated agreement between the two lists, except for Lucilia coeruleiviridis Macquart, Calliphora vomitoria (L.), and Cynomya cadaverina Robineau-Desvoidy, which occurred on pig carcasses but not human remains, and Calliphora livida Hall, which occurred on human remains, but not carcasses. The composite fauna list from cadavers agreed largely with the 2-yr list from pig carcasses.

2021 ◽  
pp. 108351
Zoran Djinović ◽  
Robert Pavelka ◽  
Miloš Tomić ◽  
Georg Sprinzl ◽  
Julia Gertrud Müller ◽  

Christoph J. Laux ◽  
Paul Borbas ◽  
Christina Villefort ◽  
Simon Hofstede ◽  
Lukas Ernstbrunner ◽  

2021 ◽  
Vol 8 (1) ◽  
Nayyar AK ◽  
Ghatak S ◽  

Bone preparation involves soft tissue removal, maceration, bleaching and labelling. In the absence of a standardized methodology a large repository of human bones are lost, as most medical colleges do not process bones after the dissection of human cadavers. The present study therefore conducted with the aim of evaluating the least time-consuming and effective method of bone preparation from embalmed and wet specimens. The method used included a process of maceration, which involves soft tissue removal and then boiling the bones in 60 litres of water for 2 hours. The process of maceration was augmented by adding potassium hydroxide pellets (caustic potash mol. wt. 56.11) after 30 minutes of initiation of boiling; 200-250 gm in the case of male bones and 150 – 200 gm in the case of female bones. After maceration was complete, the bones were bleached by soaking them in 30 – 35 litres of hydrogen peroxide 30% w/v solution (mol. wt. 34.01) for 12-14 hours. The bleached bones were then washed with water and soaked in 30 -35 litres of acetone (extra pure mol. wt. 58.08, boiling point 55.5° – 56°C) for 12 hours to degrease them. The bones dried naturally by spreading them on blotting paper and subsequently painted with a mixture of half a litre of lacquer and half a litre of lacquer thinner. This study concluded that the preparation of bones using the above method was effective, fast, odourless, and good quality human bones for anatomical study resulted.

2021 ◽  
Vol 69 (4) ◽  
pp. e80734
Daniela Cruz-Buitrago ◽  
Yobany Quijano-Blanco

Introduction: The anatomy of the knee and its ligaments is clearly described in the relevant literature; however, several studies have found new structures associated with this joint, such as the anterolateral ligament (ALL) of the knee. The prevalence of this ligament varies a lot around the world, and studies addressing this topic in Colombian population are scarce. Objective: To determine the prevalence of ALL and its morphometric characteristics in a sample of Colombian human cadavers. Materials and methods: Cross-sectional study in which the knee joints of 15 human cadavers were dissected and analyzed. In order to ensure the integrity of anatomical structures such as ligaments and tendons, specimens should have not undergone previous dissections, so only 29 knees were included for analysis. The presence of the ligament was verified, and the proximal and distal insertion site, as well as its length and width, were established through the dissection. Results: The prevalence of ALL was 24.13%, as it was identified in 7 of the 29 dissected knees (4 left and 3 right knees). The average length and width of the ALLs found were 37.5mm (range: 24-52.4mm) and 3.9mm (range: 2.6-6mm), respectively. Conclusions: This study allowed confirming the presence of the ALL in Colombian population, although with a lower prevalence than that described in countries such as France, India, China, USA and Brazil. In turn, its morphometric characteristics were similar to those reported worldwide, since the average length and width found here are consistent with those described in the literature.

2021 ◽  
pp. 69-70
Ramitha Enakshi Kumar. S ◽  
P. Vahini

Objective: The objective of this study is to comprehensively put forth the anatomical variations in the origin and course of lingual and facial arteries found in adult cadavers. Methods: Ten human cadavers were dissected and studied for variations from the norm regarding facial and lingual arteries . Results: 80% of the cadavers displayed classical origin and course of the arteries. There was a deviation from normal regarding origin of the arteries in 20% of the cadavers. Meanwhile, abnormality in the course amounted to 10%. Conclusion: In 20% of cadavers, there were variations in origin of facial and lingual arteries , meanwhile, changes in the course of the stated arteries is 10%. These variations prove to be of signicance to surgeons to prevent mishaps and hospital acquired infections, while performing carotid endarterectomy, intra-arterial catheterizations, plastic surgery of the face and resection of malignant tumours.

2021 ◽  
Vol 27 ◽  
Réka Székely ◽  
Ferenc Imre Suhai ◽  
Kinga Karlinger ◽  
Gábor Baksa ◽  
Bence Szabaczki ◽  

Introduction: An important phase in surgical training is gaining experience in real human anatomical situations. When a cadaver is available it may complement the various artificial practice models. However, it is often necessary to supplement the characteristics of the cadavers with a simulation of a tumor. Our objective was to develop an easy-to-create, realistic artificial tumor-mimic model for peripheral lung tumor resection practice.Methods: In our work we injected barium sulphate enriched silicone suspension into 10 isolated, non-fixed lungs of human cadavers, through the puncture of the visceral pleura. Four lesions–apical, hilar and two peripheral–were created in each of ten specimens. After fixation CT scans were obtained and analyzed. The implanted tumor-mimics were examined after anatomical preparation and slicing. Also performed CT-guided percutaneous puncture was also performed to create the lesions in situ in two lungs of human cadavers.Results: Analyzing the CT data of 10 isolated lungs, out of 40 lesions, 34 were nodular (85.0%) and in the nodular group five were spiculated (12.5%). Satellite lesions were formed in two cases (5.0%). Relevant outflow into vessels or airway occurred in five lesions (12.5%). Reaching the surface of the lung occured in 11 lesions (27.5%). The tumor-mimics were elastic and adhered well to the surrounding tissue. The two lesions, implanted via percutaneous puncture, both were nodular and one also showed lobulated features.Conclusion: Our artificial tumor-mimics were easy to create, varied in shape and size, and with percutaneous implantation the lesions provide a model for teaching every step of a surgical procedure.

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