isothermal operation
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Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 254
Paula Rodríguez-Seoane ◽  
Beatriz Díaz-Reinoso ◽  
Herminia Domínguez

Paulownia bark is mostly utilized jointly with wood, but the possibility of a separate valorization through the pressurized extraction of bark bioactives has been assessed. Subcritical water extraction and supercritical CO2 extraction are green technologies allowing shorter times than conventional solvent extraction under atmospheric shaken conditions. Subcritical water extraction was carried out at temperatures ranging from 140 to 240 °C and supercritical CO2 extraction was performed at different pressures (10, 20 and 30 MPa), temperatures (35, 45 and 55 °C) and ethanol concentrations (0, 10 and 15% (w/w)). Subcritical water extraction under a non-isothermal operation during heating up to 160 °C (19 min) provided extraction yields up to 30%, and the extracts contained up to 7% total phenolics with an ABTS (2,2′-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid)) radical scavenging capacity equivalent to 35% the activity of Trolox, whereas at 240 °C, the yield decreased to 20%, but the phenolic content reached 21%, and the antiradical activity was equivalent to 85% of Trolox. Supercritical CO2 extraction at 30 MPa, 45 °C and 30 min reached a global yield of 2% after 180 min of extraction, but the product showed very low antiradical capacity. Gallic acid, vanillic acid, vanillin and apigenin were the major phenolic compounds found in the extracts.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 27 (1) ◽  
pp. 26
Felicia Rodríguez ◽  
Efrén Aguilar-Garnica ◽  
Adrián Santiago-Toribio ◽  
Arturo Sánchez

Hydrothermal pretreatment (HP) is an eco-friendly process for deconstructing lignocellulosic biomass (LCB) that plays a key role in ensuring the profitability of producing biofuels or bioproducts in a biorefinery. At the laboratory scale, HP is usually carried out under non-isothermal regimes with poor temperature control. In contrast, HP is usually carried out under isothermal conditions at the commercial scale. Consequently, significant discrepancies in the values of polysaccharide releases are found in the literature. Therefore, laboratory-scale HP data are not trustworthy if scale-up or retrofitting of HP at larger scales is required. This contribution presents the results of laboratory-scale batch HP for wheat straw in terms of xylan and glucan release that were obtained with rigorous temperature control under isothermal conditions during the reaction stage. The heating and cooling stages were carried out with fast rates (43 and −40 °C/min, respectively), minimizing non-isothermal reaction periods. Therefore, the polysaccharide release results can be associated exclusively with the isothermic reaction stage and can be considered as a reliable source of information for HP at commercial scales. The highest amount of xylan release was 4.8 g/L or 43% obtained at 180 °C and 20 min, while the glucan release exhibited a maximum of 1.2 g/L or 5.5%. at 160 °C/180 °C and 30 min.

Molecules ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 26 (22) ◽  
pp. 7047
Hongsheng Wang ◽  
Hui Kong ◽  
Jian Wang ◽  
Mingkai Liu ◽  
Bosheng Su ◽  

Solar fuel generation from thermochemical H2O or CO2 splitting is a promising and attractive approach for harvesting fuel without CO2 emissions. Yet, low conversion and high reaction temperature restrict its application. One method of increasing conversion at a lower temperature is to implement oxygen permeable membranes (OPM) into a membrane reactor configuration. This allows for the selective separation of generated oxygen and causes a forward shift in the equilibrium of H2O or CO2 splitting reactions. In this research, solar-driven fuel production via H2O or CO2 splitting with an OPM reactor is modeled in isothermal operation, with an emphasis on the calculation of the theoretical thermodynamic efficiency of the system. In addition to the energy required for the high temperature of the reaction, the energy required for maintaining low oxygen permeate pressure for oxygen removal has a large influence on the overall thermodynamic efficiency. The theoretical first-law thermodynamic efficiency is calculated using separation exergy, an electrochemical O2 pump, and a vacuum pump, which shows a maximum efficiency of 63.8%, 61.7%, and 8.00% for H2O splitting, respectively, and 63.6%, 61.5%, and 16.7% for CO2 splitting, respectively, in a temperature range of 800 °C to 2000 °C. The theoretical second-law thermodynamic efficiency is 55.7% and 65.7% for both H2O splitting and CO2 splitting at 2000 °C. An efficient O2 separation method is extremely crucial to achieve high thermodynamic efficiency, especially in the separation efficiency range of 0–20% and in relatively low reaction temperatures. This research is also applicable in other isothermal H2O or CO2 splitting systems (e.g., chemical cycling) due to similar thermodynamics.

Processes ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (2) ◽  
pp. 360
Jian Wang ◽  
Wenwei Chen ◽  
Yan Li ◽  
Jin Xu ◽  
Weifang Yu ◽  

Simulated moving bed reactor (SMBR), a multicolumn multifunctional integrated reactor system, which can be exploited with on-site adsorptive separation to enhance conversion of equilibrium-limited reversible chemical reaction. In this article, for generality, a dimensionless SMBR model was developed and effects of five representative temperature distributions among different zones on the performance of an SMBR for reversible reaction in the general form of a reactant decomposed to two products were evaluated based on simultaneous maximization of unit throughput and product purity. Multipliers were applied to adjust some of the model parameters such that different operation modes can be compared under various conditions in the parametric space. The multiobjective optimization problems were solved using the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm. All simulations were carried out using FORTRAN codes. The results showed that both kinetics and adsorptive separation play important roles in SMBR. When kinetics is fast or adsorptive potency of the reactant is higher than the desired product (B) but lower than byproduct (C), non-isothermal operation can significantly improve unit throughput. On the contrary, feed concentration and reaction enthalpy have minor effects on the optimal solutions. Decision variables based on flow rate ratios and internal concentration profiles were used to explain the trends of Pareto optimal solution.

Catalysts ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 10 (8) ◽  
pp. 830
Alberto José Reynoso ◽  
Jose Luis Ayastuy ◽  
Unai Iriarte-Velasco ◽  
Miguel Ángel Gutiérrez-Ortiz

Bimetallic Pt-Co catalysts derived from cobalt aluminate spinel were investigated in the liquid-phase water–gas shift (WGS) reaction and CO hydrogenation. Liquid-phase WGS is a key reaction in the aqueous-phase reforming (APR) of polyols; thus, WGS activity is essential to formulate good APR catalysts. In this work, catalysts with different Pt/Co molar ratios were synthesized together with a reference Pt/alumina. All the synthesized catalysts were characterized by various techniques in order to gain knowledge on their structural and surface characteristics. WGS activity was tested with a feedstream of CO/H2O = 1/15 (space-time of 76.8 kgcat·s/molCO), isothermal operation at 260 °C and 50 bar, for 10 TOS. Bimetallic Pt-Co catalysts showed improved activity in liquid-phase WGS in comparison to bare Co or Pt catalysts, which was ascribed to the synergistic effect. Despite being subjected to an increased hydrogen concentration in the feedstream (H2/CO between 0 and 12/3), these catalysts maintained a preferential selectivity towards WGS activity. In addition, the effect of temperature (220–260 °C) and pressure (25–50 bar) was investigated over a catalyst with 0.3Pt/CoAl. CO conversion and CO2 yield were more sensitive to temperature, while a higher pressure favored methane production. The measured activation energy in the 220–260 °C temperature range was 51.5 kJ/mol.

Kaiyu Mu ◽  
Xun Wang ◽  
Ka Ho Li ◽  
Yu-Ting Huang ◽  
Shien-Ping Feng

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