hepatic ischemia reperfusion
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2022 ◽  
Vol 8 ◽  
Xin-li Mao ◽  
Yue Cai ◽  
Ya-hong Chen ◽  
Yi Wang ◽  
Xiu-xiu Jiang ◽  

Hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury (IRI), a fascinating topic that has drawn a lot of interest in the last few years, is a major complication caused by a variety of clinical situations, such as liver transplantation, severe trauma, vascular surgery, and hemorrhagic shock. The IRI process involves a series of complex events, including mitochondrial deenergization, metabolic acidosis, adenosine-5'-triphosphate depletion, Kupffer cell activation, calcium overload, oxidative stress, and the upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine signal transduction. A number of protective strategies have been reported to ameliorate IRI, including pharmacological therapy, ischemic pre-conditioning, ischemic post-conditioning, and machine reperfusion. However, most of these strategies are only at the stage of animal model research at present, and the potential mechanisms and exact therapeutic targets have yet to be clarified. IRI remains a main cause of postoperative liver dysfunction, often leading to postoperative morbidity or even mortality. Very recently, it was reported that the activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ), a member of a superfamily of nuclear transcription factors activated by agonists, can attenuate IRI in the liver, and FAM3A has been confirmed to mediate the protective effect of PPARγ in hepatic IRI. In addition, non-coding RNAs, like LncRNAs and miRNAs, have also been reported to play a pivotal role in the liver IRI process. In this review, we presented an overview of the latest advances of treatment strategies and proposed potential mechanisms behind liver IRI. We also highlighted the role of several important molecules (PPARγ, FAM3A, and non-coding RNAs) in protecting against hepatic IRI. Only after achieving a comprehensive understanding of potential mechanisms and targets behind IRI can we effectively ameliorate IRI in the liver and achieve better therapeutic effects.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (23) ◽  
pp. 13155
Małgorzata Krzystek-Korpacka ◽  
Mariusz G. Fleszar ◽  
Paulina Fortuna ◽  
Kinga Gostomska-Pampuch ◽  
Łukasz Lewandowski ◽  

Molecular mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of sitagliptin repurposed for hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) are poorly understood. We aimed to evaluate the impact of IRI and sitagliptin on the hepatic profile of eicosanoids (LC-MS/MS) and expression/concentration (RTqPCR/ELISA) of GLP-1/GLP-1R, SDF-1α/CXCR4 and VIP/VPAC1, VPAC2, and PAC1 in 36 rats. Animals were divided into four groups and subjected to ischemia (60 min) and reperfusion (24 h) with or without pretreatment with sitagliptin (5 mg/kg) (IR and SIR) or sham-operated with or without sitagliptin pretreatment (controls and sitagliptin). PGI2, PGE2, and 13,14-dihydro-PGE1 were significantly upregulated in IR but not SIR, while sitagliptin upregulated PGD2 and 15-deoxy-12,14-PGJ2. IR and sitagliptin non-significantly upregulated GLP-1 while Glp1r expression was borderline detectable. VIP concentration and Vpac2 expression were downregulated in IR but not SIR, while Vpac1 was significantly downregulated solely in SIR. IRI upregulated both CXCR4 expression and concentration, and sitagliptin pretreatment abrogated receptor overexpression and downregulated Sdf1. In conclusion, hepatic IRI is accompanied by an elevation in proinflammatory prostanoids and overexpression of CXCR4, combined with downregulation of VIP/VPAC2. Beneficial effects of sitagliptin during hepatic IRI might be mediated by drug-induced normalization of proinflammatory prostanoids and upregulation of PGD2 and by concomitant downregulation of SDF-1α/CXCR4 and reinstating VIP/VCAP2 signaling.

Shock ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Timothy Borjas ◽  
Asha Jacob ◽  
HaoTing Yen ◽  
Vihas Patel ◽  
Gene Coppa ◽  

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