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2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 0-0

A novel secure energy aware game theory (SEGaT) method has proposed to have better coordination in wireless sensor actor networks. An actor has a cluster of sensor nodes which is required to perform different action based on the need that emerge in the network individually or sometime with coordination from other actors. The method has different stages for the fulfilment of these actions. Based on energy aware actor selection (EAAS), selection of number of actors and their approach is the initial step followed by the selection of best team of sensors with each actor to carry out the action and lastly the selection of reliable node within that team to finally nail the action into place in the network for its smooth working and minimum compromise in the energy The simulations are done in MATLAB and result of the energy and the packet delivery ratio are compared with game theory (GaT) and real time energy constraint (RTEC) method. The proposed protocol performs better in terms of energy consumption, packet delivery ratio as compared to its competitive protocols.

2022 ◽  
Vol 13 (2) ◽  
pp. 0-0

Wireless Multimedia Sensor Networks (WMSNs) have been used in many applications and powerful distributed systems. But the performance of WMSNs is suffering from the occurrence of energy holes. To improve the performance of the network and packet delivery ratio, a Voronoi-Ant colony based Routing (VoR-Ant-R) algorithm is proposed for WMSNs to discover the energy holes and finds the shortest path from the source to destination in the WMSNs even though faces some obstacles. The WMSNs are constructed using the Voronoi structure to bypass energy holes. After bypassing the energy hole in the path; an ACO is introduced to select a neighborhood node for data forwarding. This ACO constructs the shortest optimized path to enhance the performance of the WMSNs. The proposed work is experimentally compared with other algorithms such as IEEABR, EEABR, SC, and BEES. The simulation results show that VoR-Ant-R can increase energy efficiency, success rate, reduces energy consumption, and latency.

Vu Khanh Quy ◽  
Pham Minh Chuan ◽  
Le Anh Ngoc

Mobile ad-hoc networks (MANETs) is a set of mobile devices that can self-configuration, self-established parameters to transmission in-network. Although limited inability, MANETs have been applied in many domains to serve humanity in recent years, such as disaster recovery, forest fire, military, intelligent traffic, or IoT ecosystems. Because of the movement of network devices, the system performance is low. In order to MANETs could more contribution in the future of the Internet, the routing is a significant problem to enhance the performance of MANETs. In this work, we proposed a new delay-based protocol aim enhance the system performance, called performance routing protocol based on delay (PRPD). In order to analyze the efficiency of the proposed solution, we compared the proposed protocol with traditional protocols. Experiment results showed that the PRPD protocol improved packet delivery ratio, throughput, and delay compared to the traditional protocols.

2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
pp. 28
Yelena Trofimova ◽  
Pavel Tvrdík

In wireless ad hoc networks, security and communication challenges are frequently addressed by deploying a trust mechanism. A number of approaches for evaluating trust of ad hoc network nodes have been proposed, including the one that uses neural networks. We proposed to use packet delivery ratios as input to the neural network. In this article, we present a new method, called TARA (Trust-Aware Reactive Ad Hoc routing), to incorporate node trusts into reactive ad hoc routing protocols. The novelty of the TARA method is that it does not require changes to the routing protocol itself. Instead, it influences the routing choice from outside by delaying the route request messages of untrusted nodes. The performance of the method was evaluated on the use case of sensor nodes sending data to a sink node. The experiments showed that the method improves the packet delivery ratio in the network by about 70%. Performance analysis of the TARA method provided recommendations for its application in a particular ad hoc network.

C. Sapna Kumari ◽  
C. N. Asha ◽  
U. Rajashekhar ◽  
K. Viswanath

At present, due to the various hacking approaches, the protection for any data transmitted through any channel or mode is one of the important issues. Nowadays, providing data security is satisfactory, developments are extended for obtaining data among the transceivers. Security level depends on the size of a symmetric key which is employed for encryption and decryption using various cryptography systems management and in modern approaches like block and RF codes including AES use a larger size of key simultaneously and there exists security problems due to hacking approaches. To illustrate the protection level and hacking problems, a new ECC is presented as well as by employing scalar duplication, the synchronous key is generated and consists of point doubling and point addition. The created focuses are encrypted before transmission by using ECC-Elgamal-Holomorphic (ECCEH) and transferred through a distant channel and encipher data is failed at the receiver using ECCEH which includes the reverse process. The unique standards of cryptography context have been generated by MATLAB; the defined framework has endeavored to the extent that speed, delay as well as control, and many others are accepted in MATLAB 2017a. The user of the sender, the original information is transformed into integer value by employing Holomorphic and encodes it by utilizing the Elgamal ECC algorithm which employs point doubling and point addition. The encoded information is uploaded into the cloud for storage, here is utilized for storage. When the user presents at the receiver request the cloud to access from it, initially the cloud server authenticates the access control strategies of the requester, and then access is provided by the cloud server. If the user authenticates the strategies, then encoded data can download and the original data is decoded by synchronous key employing ECC- Elgamal algorithm. Using original and decrypted data, various performance factors are calculated in terms of execution time, packet delivery ratio, throughput, latency and compare these results with conventional methods and found to be 12%, 31%, 24%, and 8% progress concerned with packet delivery ratio, latency, outturn and execution time.

2021 ◽  
Vol 6 (9 (114)) ◽  
pp. 6-14
Shaymaa Kadhim Mohsin ◽  
Maysoon A. Mohammed ◽  
Helaa Mohammed Yassien

Bluetooth uses 2.4 GHz in ISM (industrial, scientific, and medical) band, which it shares with other wireless operating system technologies like ZigBee and WLAN. The Bluetooth core design comprises a low-energy version of a low-rate wireless personal area network and supports point-to-point or point-to-multipoint connections. The aim of the study is to develop a Bluetooth mesh flooding and to estimate packet delivery ratio in wireless sensor networks to model asynchronous transmissions including a visual representation of a mesh network, node-related statistics, and a packet delivery ratio (PDR). This work provides a platform for Bluetooth networking by analyzing the flooding of the network layers and configuring the architecture of a multi-node Bluetooth mesh. Five simulation scenarios have been presented to evaluate the network flooding performance. These scenarios have been performed over an area of 200×200 meters including 81 randomly distributed nodes including different Relay/End node configurations and source-destination linking between nodes. The results indicate that the proposed approach can create a pathway between the source node and destination node within a mesh network of randomly distributed End and Relay nodes using MATLAB environment. The results include probability calculation of getting a linking between two nodes based on Monte Carlo method, which was 88.7428 %, while the Average-hop-count linking between these nodes was 8. Based on the conducted survey, this is the first study to examine and demonstrate Bluetooth mesh flooding and estimate packet delivery ratio in wireless sensor networks

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 (2) ◽  
pp. 296-305
Wirarama Wedashwara ◽  
Budi Irmawati ◽  
Andy Hidayat Jatmika ◽  
Ariyan Zubaidi ◽  

Internet of things (IoT) requires an internet network for data communication between machines. Wifi is not always available outdoors and requires more portable data communication. This study aims to design a prototype Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) based on nRF24L01 and solar-powered SIM800l for outdoor IoT implementation. The study used a total of five IoT devices with four nodes with nRF24L01 and one node with nRF24L01 and SIM800l. Each device uses an Arduino nano, TP4056, 6WP solar panel, and a 900mAh 18650 battery. The evaluation of the system includes a comparative QoS analysis, namely packet delivery ratio (PDR), throughput, and delay in star and bus topology through data collection of observation methods by sensors. The evaluation results show that for unidirectional data communication the star topology has better results with PDR 99,099%, throughput 99.393%, and delay 0.0095s. While the bus topology produces a slight difference in PDR 98.766%, throughput 98.461%, and delay 0.017s. Evaluation of energy availability shows that during the day with an average voltage of 3.703v and at night 2.976v, there is no significant difference. During the day it produces 99.301% PDR, 99.653% throughput, and 0.001s delay, while at night it produces 94.221% PDR, 99.881% throughput, and 0.027s delay.

Vasin Chaoboworn ◽  
Yoschanin Sasiwat ◽  
Dujdow Buranapanichkit ◽  
Hiroshi Saito ◽  
Apidet Booranawong

In this paper, the communication reliability of a 2.4 GHz multi-hop wireless sensor network (WSN) in various test scenarios is evaluated through experiments. First, we implement an autonomous communication procedure for a multi-hop WSN on Tmote sky sensor nodes; 2.4 GHz, an IEEE 802.15.4 standard. Here, all nodes including a transmitter node (Tx), forwarder nodes (Fw), and a base station node (BS) can automatically work for transmitting and receiving data. The experiments have been tested in different scenarios including: i) in a room, ii) line-of-sight (LoS) communications on the 2nd floor of a building, iii) LoS and non-line-of-sight (NLoS) communications on the 1st floor to the 2nd floor, iv) LoS and NLoS communications from outdoor to the 1st and the 2nd floors of the building. The experimental results demonstrate that the communication reliability indicated by the packet delivery ratio (PDR) can vary from 99.89% in the case of i) to 14.40% in the case of iv), respectively. Here, the experiments reveal that multi-hop wireless commutations for outdoor to indoor with different floors and NLoS largely affect the PDR results, where the PDR more decreases from the best case (i.e., the case of a)) by 85.49%. Our research methodology and findings can be useful for users and researchers to carefully consider and deploy an efficient 2.4 GHz multi-hop WSN in their works, since different WSN applications require different communication reliability level.

2021 ◽  
pp. 4121-4147
Ruwaida M. Yas ◽  
Sokaina Hashim

     The rapid evolution of wireless networking technologies opens the door to the evolution of the Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) and their applications in different fields. The WSN consists of small energy sensor nodes used in a harsh environment. The energy needed to communicate between the sensors networks can be identified as one of the major challenges. It is essential to avoid massive loss, or loss of packets, as well as rapid energy depletion and grid injustice, which lead to lower node efficiency and higher packet delivery delays. For this purpose, it was very important to track the usage of energy by nodes in order to improve general network efficiency by the use of intelligent methods to reduce the energy used to extend the life of the WSN and take successful routing decisions. For these reasons, designing an energy-efficient system that utilizes intelligent approaches is considered as the most powerful way to prolong the lifetime of the WSN. The proposed system is divided into four phases (sensor deployment phase, clustering phase, intra-cluster phase, and inter-cluster phase). Each of these phases uses a different intelligent algorithm with some enhancements. The performance of the proposed system was analyzed and evaluations were elaborated with well-known existing routing protocols. To assess the proficiency of the proposed system and evaluate the endurance of the network, efficiency parameters such as network lifetime, energy consumption, and packet delivery to the Sink (Base station) were exploited. The experimental outcomes justify that the proposed system surpasses the existing mechanisms by 50%.

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