flexion and extension
Recently Published Documents





2022 ◽  
Vol 11 (2) ◽  
pp. 411
Sadayuki Ito ◽  
Hiroaki Nakashima ◽  
Akiyuki Matsumoto ◽  
Kei Ando ◽  
Masaaki Machino ◽  

Introduction: The T1 slope is important for cervical surgical planning, and it may be invisible on radiographic images. The prevalence of T1 invisible cases and the differences in demographic and radiographic characteristics between patients whose T1 slopes are visible or invisible remains unexplored. Methods: This pilot study aimed to evaluate the differences in these characteristics between outpatients whose T1 slopes were visible or invisible on radiographic images. Patients (n = 60) who underwent cervical radiography, whose T1 slope was confirmed clearly, were divided into the visible (V) group and invisible (I) group. The following radiographic parameters were measured: (1) C2-7 sagittal vertical axis (SVA), (2) C2-7 angle in neutral, flexion, and extension positions. Results: Based on the T1 slope visibility, 46.7% of patients were included in group I. The I group had significantly larger C2-7 SVA than the V group for males (p < 0.05). The C2-7 SVA tended to be larger in the I group, without significant difference for females (p = 0.362). Discussion: The mean C2-7 angle in neutral and flexion positions was not significantly different between the V and I groups for either sex. The mean C2-7 angle in the extension position was greater in the V group. The T1 slope was invisible in males with high C2-7 SVA.

2022 ◽  
Vol 52 (3) ◽  
Julián Andres Sanjuan Galíndez ◽  
Bruno Watanabe Minto ◽  
Paulo Vinicius Tertuliano Marinho ◽  
Adrielly Dissenha ◽  
Dayvid Vianeis Farias de Lucena ◽  

ABSTRACT: Dorsal laminectomy is routinely performed for spinal cord compressions or stenosis of the cervical vertebral canal. However, despite good results, relevant complications have been described in dogs. Considering the incomplete understanding of the necessity for complementary surgical stabilization after performing laminectomies in the cervical region, this study compared the resistance and range of motion (ROM) of the cervical spinal column subjected to Funkquist B laminectomy between the sixth and seventh vertebrae in dogs. Forty-four cervical vertebral columns (C2-T1) of dogs, with an average weight of 26.2±3.8 kg, were selected using radiography and computed tomography. Four experimental groups (n=11) were established according to the mechanical test: two control groups (flexion and extension control) and two laminectomy groups (flexion and extension laminectomies). Numerical results of the maximum load for measuring the resistance and ROM of the columns of the two control groups and the two laminectomy groups were compared. The laminectomy groups showed a lower maximum load, regardless of the mechanical test performed (P<0.001). The ROM was not influenced by laminectomy, the type of mechanical test (ventral flexion or extension), or its interaction (P<0.05). There was no interaction between the effect of the laminectomy factors (yes or no) and the effect of the mechanical tests for ventral flexion or extension (P<0.05). In conclusion, Funkquist B dorsal cervical laminectomy between C6 and C7 decreases mechanical resistance with a supraphysiological loading force but does not alter the ROM, suggesting that it can be used without additional mechanical stabilization in dogs.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 (12) ◽  
pp. 291-295
Escandon-Villafan S. ◽  
Gomez-Espindola J. ◽  

Statement of theproblem: Currentlyitis of utmostimportance to keep in mindone of themaincomplicationsorsequelaethatgeneratevariousjoint and periarticular conditionslocated in theknee and thatresult in decreased flexion and extensionmovements and isknown as jointstiffness, thereis a surgicaltherapeuticalternativecalledminimallyinvasivequadriceplastythat can restore flexion movementsthathavebeenalteredbythispathology. TheWorldHealthOrganizationemphasizesthatone of themostimportantstandards in thearea of traumatology and orthopedicshospitalizationisthe time ittakes to perform a surgicalprocedurefromthe time of diagnosis to theday of surgery. Knowingorknowingthissurgicaltechniquewouldfacilitate and reduce the time of choosingtheprocedure, sinceitwould be used in specificsituationssuch as, forexample: active militarywith a diagnosis of jointstiffness, alreadywithotherconditionstreated, and withlimitation to flexion and extension of thekneewithouthavingperformedanotherquadriceplastybefore. Objective: to determine theclinicaloutcome of percutaneousquadriceplastybyassessingthe pre- and post-surgicalrange of motion in patientswithkneejointstiffnesssecondary to peri- and intra-articular conditions. Methodology: Type of study: anobservational, cross-sectional, retrospectivestudywascarriedout. Population: 10 patientswith a diagnosis of kneejointstiffness, wherethe variables of age, sex, pre- and post-surgicalmobilityarches, physicaltherapy and rehabilitationsessions, orthopedicsurgicalhistory, and whethertheyhadanycomorbidityduringthestudywereanalyzedtaken. Results, Theaverage of thevaluesobtainedfromthearches of mobility in a pre-surgicalwaywas 38 compared to theresultobtainedfromtheaveragepostoperativewas 90 degreesobservedthattherewasanincrease in thearches of mobilityduringthepostoperative.

Tribologia ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 297 (3) ◽  
pp. 57-64
Tomasz Wiśniewski ◽  
Michał Libera

The paper deals with the subject related to the assessment of the influence of the axis angle of the metal components of the hip joint on the emission of cobalt ions. The tribological tests were carried out with the use of a simulator for the examination of hip joint endoprostheses, the structure of which enables the fixation of endoprosthesis components in accordance with the anatomical structure of the human hip joint. During the tests, the simulator performs flexion and extension movements as well as loads occurring in the human hip joint while walking. Loss-wear tests were carried out for nine variants of the “head–cup” system settings. These settings were determined on the basis of CT images obtained from patients after arthroplasty. After the tribological tests were completed, samples of the lubricating fluid with the wear products suspended in it were collected in order to determine the concentration of cobalt ions, which was carried out using the atomic absorption spectrometry method. As a result, the influence of the head antetorsion angle (α) and the acetabular anteversion angle (β) on the concentration of cobalt ions was analysed.

2021 ◽  
pp. 86-92
S. V. Vasilevich ◽  
P. L. Zaltcman

Introduction. Cramps are sudden, involuntary, painful tonic muscle spasms of individual muscles or muscle groups lasting from several seconds to several minutes. It occurs in patients of different age categories with a frequency of up to 37 %. Tissue flossing (flossing, voodoo flossing) is an effect on the musculature, tendons, fascia (myofascial structures) of the extremities with the help of a special elastic band circularly wound on the limb, and subsequent physical exercises in this condition in order to improve blood circulation in the limb segment, increase tissue mobility, elasticity and extensibility of muscle-fascial structures. Tissue flossing can help to increase the volume of movements in the joints, reduce pain and increase flexibility.The aim to study the effects of tissue flossing on the frequency and intensity of manifestations of cramps. Materials and methods. The publication was based on the materials obtained during the observation of 7 patients with cramps. The aggressive nature of the muscle spasms forced them to seek medical help. In order to assess the effect on the frequency and intensity of cramps, patients underwent circular winding of an elastic band on a limb segment (tissue flossing) in which cramps occurred, followed by physical exercises (mainly flexion and extension at a pace of one movement per second) without additional load (with their weight) for 1 minute. Then the elastic band was removed and the patient continued to perform the same movements also for a minute with a frequency of one movement per second. Patients performed exercises 1-2 times a day for 5-14 days.Results. In five out of seven patients, cramps did not resume after the first use of tissue flossing. In two of the seven patients, cramps stopped after 7 days of exercise use. At follow-up in one (out of seven) patients, cramps resumed 2 months after the use of tissue flossing, but with a lower intensity. In the other six (out of seven) patients in the subsequent follow-up period (from 14 days to 6 months), cramps did not resume.Conclusion. According to the preliminary results of observations, it can be assumed that the tissue flossing method is effective for preventing cramps of various genesis as an independent and additional method of treatment.

2021 ◽  
Tian-Zong Huang ◽  
Suhn Yeop Kim

Abstract Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a very common symptom experienced by individuals across all age groups. Previous study established that using a device known as Active Therapeutic Movement version 2 (ATM®2) has been developed to improve pain and joint range of motion (ROM) in patients with LBP. However, no study has examined the physiological change in the muscle through ATM®2-based exercise thus far. This study aimed to determine the immediate effects of ATM®2 exercise on the contraction timing, back extension endurance, muscle fatigue, and trunk ROM of lumbar and lower limb muscles in healthy subjects.Methods: Thirty-six healthy subjects (mean age=23.16±2.3) volunteered to participate in this study. Subjects were instructed to perform ROM test using sit and reach test, back extensor endurance test using Biering-Sorensen test, erector spinae (ES), lumbar multifidus (LM) fatigue and onset time of Gluteus maximus (GM) in prone hip extension using electromyography before and after trunk flexion and extension isometric exercises.Results: The ROM in trunk flexion showed a significant increase by 7.9% after exercise compared to that before exercise (p<0.05). Relative GM contraction onset timing significantly decreased after exercise (p<0.05). The result of the Sorensen test after exercise showed a trend of increase in duration time. Muscle fatigue in the LM, however, showed a significant increase (p<0.05), whereas muscle fatigue in the ES was reduced without statistical significance.Conclusions: The results base on this study showed a significant increase in the trunk ROM after trunk flexion and extension isometric exercise using an external compression device, while the relative contraction onset timing in the GM significantly reduced. Furthermore, the muscle endurance test after exercise showed a trend of increase in the duration time with a decreasing trend in muscle fatigue in the ES. Exercise based on ATM®2 is an effective exercise protocol with an effect on biomechanics of healthy subjects. This exercise may be suitable in clinical practice for patients with LBP, for which long-term effects can be expected.

2021 ◽  
Vol Publish Ahead of Print ◽  
Tyler J. Neltner ◽  
John Paul V. Anders ◽  
Joshua L. Keller ◽  
Robert W. Smith ◽  
Terry J. Housh ◽  

2021 ◽  
Ching Yee Yong ◽  
Terence Tien Lok Sia

Neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) has been widely used in rehabilitation hubs to restore or replace the motor function of individuals who have upper neuron damage such as stroke and spinal cord injury. However, the utilization of sensors in NMES is limited and results in the lack of data for upper limb movement analysis. The proposed system implemented NMES integrated with human-to-human interface (HHI) in the rehabilitation process for stroke patients. The therapist (controller) can coach the motion of patients (subject) by injecting his own signal for patients to follow. Ten (10) subjects were tested with five (5) repeating trials. The EMG value was extracted from the finger flexion and extension at the controller side, then injected into the control unit for further stimulation of the subject. In order to evaluate the repeating motion by the subject, an accelerometer was attached to the finger. Performance evaluation of the subject was executed by comparing the flexion angle with the controller side. The result showed that the error of the system was less than 10.29 % for the first trial and gradually reduced to 1 % after 5 trials.

2021 ◽  
Adnan Waleed ◽  
Ligia Rusu ◽  
Bediwy Ali

Introduction.Rehabilitation is a program of treatment with some sport exercises targeting the lower body .The aim:of the study is to develop the work of the knee joint after the ligament rupture injury and to rehabilitate itby preparation of the (PTP) proposed training program.Material and Method:The study included 4 injured athletes who were selected from a total of 10 injured.The tools used to measure the angle of flexion and extension of the knee joint before and after rehabilitation are tape measure , anthropometric measurements and squat equipment. Statistical analyses:which used included MEAN, STD, MAX, MIN, MEDIAN to explain the results. Anthropometricis used to measure the (TCUIL) Thigh circumference of upper injured limb and (CBIL) Circumference of bottom injured, Flexion and extension angle of the knee joint and isometric -isotonic exercises with Pre-test –post-test for 4 injures athletes. Results :using the intensity of 30-35% until it reached 95-100% after the end of the training program with 9 -10Kg weights in the first week until 30-35 Kg on squat equipment at the end of the fourth week and it was cured and Anthropometrics of Pre-test was (TCUIL) was 49 and Post-test was 50 cm with increase1cmand the Pre-test of (CBIL) was 34.5 and Post-test 34.7 cm with increase(0.2mm).Conclusions:: The (PTP) developed muscle strength of the femoral muscle groups working on the knee joint after used isometric isotonic exercise

Tanvi Sood

Today the desk/chair-hand combination became the cultural norm in the workplace. Typical seated worker has risk of musculo-skeltal disorders same as lifting heavy weights on job. CTS is one of the musculo-skeletal disorder and is due to overuse, strain, forceful or stressed motion of hand and wrist. Activities or jobs that require repetitive flexion and extension of the wrist may contribute such as computer work, sewing, writing, playing instruments, and driving for long duration. Its Risk factors include RA or other wrist arthritis, Diabetes etc. In Ayurveda increase or vitiation of Vata results in compression and pain which is present in CTS. Ayurveda management of Carpal tunnel syndrome involves the management of vitiated Vata Dosha. The primary aim is to ease inflammation and pain by improving blood circulation and relaxing the muscles. In this regard, an attempt has been made to review the Ganas (Group of drugs) like Vednasthapana, Daha-Shamaka and therapies like Basti, Swedna mentioned in Ayurvedic classical texts and scientific journals which helps in management of symptom and eliminate the root cause of diseases.

Sign in / Sign up

Export Citation Format

Share Document