Evidence points to diverse risk factors associated with small- (SGA) and large-for-gestational-age (LGA) births. A more comprehensive understanding of these factors is imperative, especially in vulnerable populations.
To estimate the occurrence of and sociodemographic factors associated with SGA and LGA births in poor and extremely poor populations of Brazil.
The study population consisted of women of reproductive age (14–49 y), whose last child was born between 2012 and 2015. INTERGROWTH 21st consortium criteria were used to classify weight for gestational age according to sex. Multinomial logistic regression modeling was performed to investigate associations of interest.
Of 5,521,517 live births analyzed, SGA and LGA corresponded to 7.8% and 17.1%, respectively. Multivariate analysis revealed greater odds of SGA in children born to women who self-reported as black (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.22), mixed-race (parda) (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.09), or indigenous (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.06, 1.15), were unmarried (OR: 1.08; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.08), illiterate (OR: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.42, 1.52), did not receive prenatal care (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.53, 1.60), or were aged 14–20 y (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.22) or 35–49 y (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.13). Considering LGA children, higher odds were found in infants born to women living in households with ≥3 inadequate housing conditions (OR: 1.11; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.12), in indigenous women (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.19, 1.25), those who had 1–3 y of schooling (OR: 1.18; 95% CI: 1.17, 1.19), 1–3 prenatal visits (OR: 1.16; CI 95%: 1.14, 1.17), or were older (OR: 1.26; 95% CI: 1.25, 1.27).
In poorer Brazilian populations, socioeconomic, racial, and maternal characteristics are consistently associated with the occurrence of SGA births, but remain less clearly linked to the occurrence of LGA births.
Anastrepha fraterculus (Wiedemann), Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), and Drosophila suzukii (Matsumura) are the main fruit pests in Brazil. Here, we evaluated the susceptibility of Brazilian populations of A. fraterculus, C. capitata, and D. suzukii to selected insecticides. In ingestion bioassays, adults from a laboratory susceptible population of each species were exposed to five different modes of action of insecticide. Then, field populations of each species were exposed to the diagnostic concentrations to evaluate possible changes in susceptibility. Our findings indicate that lambda-cyhalothrin, malathion, and spinosad had similar levels of toxicity against a susceptible laboratory population of A. fraterculus, with LC50 values of 6.34, 6.54, and 8.76 µg a.i./ml, respectively. Ceratitis capitata had similar susceptibilities to spinosad (1.30 µg a.i./ml), spinetoram (2.76 µg a.i./ml), and malathion (7.10 µg a.i./ml), but a lower susceptibility to lambda-cyhalothrin (76.55 µg a.i./ml). For D. suzukii, the LC50 values of deltamethrin (0.67 µg a.i./ml), malathion (3.30 µg a.i./mL), spinosad (4.16 µg a.i./ml), and spinetoram (4.75 µg a.i./ml) were lower than for abamectin (15.02 µg a.i./ml), acetamiprid (39.38 a.i./ml), and thiamethoxam (70.15 µg a.i./ml). The diagnostic concentrations, based on LC99 values of the insecticides, caused more than 99% mortality for most field populations of each species. For lambda-cyhalothrin the populations RS-1 (A. fraterculus) and SC (C. capitata) showed approximately 10% of live insects. These differences represent the natural variation in population susceptibility and not due to insecticide selection pressure. The diagnostic concentrations defined here should be used in future resistance monitoring programs in Brazil.
Abstract: The Spiny Red Lobster has an important commercial role in Brazil. However, a downward trend in the production of lobsters due to overfishing has been observed and there is also a devaluation of the product in the international market due to the instability in the size pattern of lobsters commercialized. Here in Brazil we detected two issues regarding the Spiny Red Lobster: (1) According to recent studies, there are genetic and morphological differences between Caribbean and Brazilian populations, which may be considered different species and; (2) Current legislation, such as seasonal closures, does not consider the multiple probable stocks of the species, which have direct implications in management and conservation. Thus, the recognition of the Spiny Red Lobster from Brazil as Panulirus meripurpuratus and investments on population and biological research are essential to improve its management considering regional stock differences.
Insecticides resistance can significantly compromise the control programs of Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae), one of the main wheat pests in warehouses. The objectives of this work were to study the occurrence of resistance to fenitrothion and esfenvalerate in two Brazilian populations of R. dominica from Santa Rosa (SR lineage) and Campo Grande (CG lineage), as well as the insecticidal effect and residual action of these insecticides when used alone or as a mixture in stored wheat. The application system was calibrated to provide grain treatment at theoretical concentrations of 10 and/or 0.5 mg kg-1 fenitrothion and esfenvalerate, respectively. By comparing the fitted mortality curves for lineages within insecticides, as well as insecticides within lineages significant differences were observed in all cases. Esfenvalerate was ineffective in controlling R. dominica. The SR lineage of R. dominica was more resistant to the insecticides tested than the CG lineage. The number of individuals in the F1 offspring of R. dominica was dependent on the lineage, insecticide, and on the time after the application of insecticide. In the untreated grains (control), the CG lineage had a greater number of progeny than the SR lineage, while the opposite was verified in the grains treated. Fenitrothion and esfenvalerate are not useful for the control of R. dominica. Factors influencing control of R. dominica are discussed in this work.
The genetic diversity of six Brazilian native goats was reported using molecular markers. Hair samples of 332 animals were collected from different goat breeds (Moxotó, Canindé, Serrana Azul, Marota, Repartida, and Graúna) from five states of Northeast Brazil (Paraíba, Pernambuco, Rio Grande do Norte, Bahia, and Piauí). A panel of 27 microsatellites or single sequence repeats (SSRs) were selected and amplified using a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique. All populations showed an average allele number of over six. The mean observed heterozygosity for Brazilian breeds was superior to 0.50. These results demonstrated the high genetic diversity in the studied populations with values ranging from 0.53 (Serrana Azul) to 0.62 (Repartida). The expected average heterozygosity followed the same trend ranging from 0.58 (Serrana Azul) to 0.65 (Repartida), and the values obtained are very similar for all six breeds. The fixation index (Fis) had values under 10% except for the Moxotó breed (13%). The mean expected heterozygosity of all Brazilian populations was over 0.50. Results indicated a within-breed genetic variability in the Brazilian breeds based on the average number of alleles and the average observed heterozygosity. The interbreed genetic diversity values showed proper genetic differentiation among local Brazilian goat breeds.
Factors associated with low birth weight at term (TLBW), a proxy for intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR), are not well-elucidated in socioeconomically vulnerable populations. This study aimed to identify the factors associated with TLBW in impoverished Brazilian women.
Records in the 100 Million Brazilian Cohort database were linked to those in the National System of Information on Live Births (SINASC) to obtain obstetric, maternal, birth and socioeconomic data between 2001 and 2015. Multivariate logistic regression was performed to investigate associations between variables of exposure and TLBW.
Of 8,768,930 term live births analyzed, 3.7% presented TLBW. The highest odds of TLBW were associated with female newborns (OR: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.47–1.50), whose mothers were black (OR: 1.20; 95% CI: 1.18–1.22), had a low educational level (OR: 1.57; 95% CI: 1.53–1.62), were aged ≥35 years (OR: 1.44; 95% CI: 1.43–1.46), had a low number of prenatal care visits (OR: 2.48; 95% CI: 2.42–2.54) and were primiparous (OR: 1.62; 95% CI: 1.60–1.64). Lower odds of TLBW were found among infants whose mothers lived in the North, Northeast and Center-West regions of Brazil compared to those in the South.
Multiple aspects were associated with TLBW, highlighting the need to comprehensively examine the mechanisms underlying these factors, especially in more vulnerable Brazilian populations, in order to contribute to the elaboration of health policies and promote better conditions of life for poor and extremely poor mothers and children.