Methyl Jasmonic Acid
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2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (15) ◽  
pp. 7895
Yao Cao ◽  
Rui Chen ◽  
Wen-Tao Wang ◽  
Dong-Hao Wang ◽  
Xiao-Yan Cao

Salvia miltiorrhiza is a renowned model medicinal plant species for which 15 SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN-LIKE (SPL) family genes have been identified; however, the specific functions of SmSPLs have not been well characterized as of yet. For this study, the expression patterns of SmSPL6 were determined through its responses to treatments of exogenous hormones, including indole acetic acid (IAA), gibberellic acid (GA3), methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA), and abscisic acid (ABA). To characterize its functionality, we obtained SmSPL6-ovexpressed transgenic S. miltiorrhiza plants and found that overexpressed SmSPL6 promoted the accumulation of phenolic acids and repressed the biosynthesis of anthocyanin. Meanwhile, the root lengths of the SmSPL6-overexpressed lines were significantly longer than the control; however, both the fresh weights and lateral root numbers decreased. Further investigations indicated that SmSPL6 regulated the biosynthesis of phenolic acid by directly binding to the promoter regions of the enzyme genes Sm4CL9 and SmCYP98A14 and activated their expression. We concluded that SmSPL6 regulates not only the biosynthesis of phenolic acids, but also the development of roots in S. miltiorrhiza.

2021 ◽  
Vol 22 (1&2) ◽  
pp. 59-64
Prasanna H. S. ◽  
B.N. Maruthi Prasad ◽  
Vishnuvardhana K. ◽  
T.H. Shankarappa ◽  
Jayashree Ugalat ◽  

Chia is an important medicinal crop with lot of nutritional value in seeds and there is lot of demand to chia seeds grown without any chemical application. In this context, present study was concentrated on foliar application of different elicitors at 25 and 50 days after sowing as effective plant protectants by inducing plant defense response. Both black and white chia plants sprayed with chitosan at 200 ppm were un-affected by any pest and diseases. The plants sprayed with other elicitors like 100 ppm of salicylic acid, methyl jasmonic acid, potassium silicate, 200 ppm of boric acid, humic acid and 5000 ppm of dry yeast and PGPR are less prone to pest and disease attack. Whereas, the maximum pest infestation and disease incidence were noticed in plants sprayed with gibberellic acid (pest - 2.38 and 1.93%; disease - 0.89% in both) and in control (pest - 1.34 and 1.04%; disease - 1.34 and 0.74%) in black and white chia respectively.

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Yanning Su ◽  
Yizhi Huang ◽  
Xintan Dong ◽  
Ruijia Wang ◽  
Mingyu Tang ◽  

Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) is an important cool-season grass species that is widely cultivated in temperate regions worldwide but usually sensitive to heat stress. Jasmonates (JAs) may have a positive effect on plant tolerance under heat stress. In this study, results showed that exogenous methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) could significantly improve heat tolerance of perennial ryegrass through alteration of osmotic adjustment, antioxidant defense, and the expression of JA-responsive genes. MeJA-induced heat tolerance was involved in the maintenance of better relative water content (RWC), the decline of chlorophyll (Chl) loss for photosynthetic maintenance, as well as maintained lower electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content under heat condition, so as to avoid further damage to plants. Besides, results also indicated that exogenous MeJA treatment could increase the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX), thus enhancing the scavenging ability of reactive oxygen species, alleviating the oxidative damage caused by heat stress. Heat stress and exogenous MeJA upregulated transcript levels of related genes (LpLOX2, LpAOC, LpOPR3, and LpJMT) in JA biosynthetic pathway, which also could enhance the accumulation of JA and MeJA content. Furthermore, some NAC transcription factors and heat shock proteins may play a positive role in enhancing resistance of perennial ryegrass with heat stress.

Plants ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (11) ◽  
pp. 1441
Yuping Li ◽  
Xiaoju Liang ◽  
Xuguo Zhou ◽  
Zhigeng Wu ◽  
Ling Yuan ◽  

Best known as licorice, Glycyrrhiza Linn., a genus of herbaceous perennial legume, has been used as a traditional herbal medicine in Asia and a flavoring agent for tobacco and food industry in Europe and America. Abiotic stresses and hormonal treatments can significantly impact the development and metabolism of secondary metabolites in Glycyrrhiza. To better understand the biosynthesis of the trace-amount bioactive compounds, we first screened for the suitable reference genes for quantitative real-time reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis in Glycyrrhiza. The expression profiles of 14 candidate reference genes, including Actin1 (ACT), Clathrin complex AP1 (CAC), Cyclophilin (CYP), Heat-shock protein 40 (DNAJ), Dehydration responsive element binding gene (DREB), Translation elongation factor1 (EF1), Ras related protein (RAN), Translation initiation factor (TIF1), β-Tubulin (TUB), Ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme E2 (UBC2), ATP binding-box transpoter 2 (ABCC2), COP9 signal compex subunit 3 (COPS3), Citrate synthase (CS), and R3H domain protein 2 (R3HDM2) from two congeneric species, Glycyrrhiza uralensis F. and Glycyrrhiza inflata B., were examined under abiotic stresses (osmotic and salinity) and hormonal treatments (Abscisic acid (ABA) and methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA)) using a panel of software, including geNorm, NormFinder, BestKeeper, and Delta CT. The overall stability, however, was provided by RefFinder, a comprehensive ranking system integrating inputs from all four algorithms. In G. uralensis, the most stable reference genes under osmotic stress, salt stress, ABA treatment, and MeJA treatment were TIF1, DNAJ, CS, and ABCC2 for leaves and DNAJ, DREB, CAC, and CAC for roots, respectively. In comparison, the top ranked genes were TUB, CAC, UBC2, and RAN for leaves and TIF1, ABCC2, CAC, and UBC2 for roots, respectively, under stress and hormonal treatments in G. inflata. ACT and TIF1, on the other hand, were the least stable genes under the most experimental conditions in the two congeneric species. Finally, our survey of the reference genes in legume shows that EF, ACT, UBC2, and TUB were the top choices for the abiotic stresses while EF, UBC2, CAC, and ABCC2 were recommended for the hormonal treatments in Leguminosae. Our combined results provide reliable normalizers for accurate gene quantifications in Glycyrrhiza species, which will allow us to exploit its medicinal potential in general and antiviral activities in particular.

A. Ezzat

The aim of this study was to investigate the postharvest effect of methyl jasmonic acid (MJ) and hot water on internal break-down and quality loss of apricot fruit under shelf life conditions. Cultivar Flavor cot apricot fruit were used to treat with water as control treatment, with 0.2 mmol/L MJ and with hot water 35 oC for 5 min. Fruit were stored at room temperature and were examined every 2 days for internal break-down and quality loss. Results showed that treated fruits with MJ and hot water showed the lowest weight loss and the highest firmness during all assessment times. Control fruits showed losing of customer acceptance from the day 2 of shelf life and then decreased dramatically to approximately loss all the acceptance at day 8. The SSC showed sever reduction in untreated fruit after day 6 at shelf life. Total phenol content reduced and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) increased in all assessment times for all treatments. Meanwhile MJ showed the best values for phenol content and lowest PPO activity. The results supported the idea of using some elicitors like methyl jasmonic and hot water treatments to enhance shelf life of apricot fruit.

2020 ◽  
Vol 168 (10) ◽  
pp. 571-580
Maria Fernanda Antunes Cruz ◽  
Marcos Oliveira Pinto ◽  
Everaldo Gonçalves Barros ◽  
Fabrício Ávila Rodrigues

Plants ◽  
2020 ◽  
Vol 9 (6) ◽  
pp. 785
Muhammad Zeshan Aslam ◽  
Xiang Lin ◽  
Xiang Li ◽  
Nan Yang ◽  
Longqing Chen

Wintersweet (Chimonanthus praecox L.) is an ornamental and economically significant shrub known for its unique flowering characteristics, especially the emission of abundant floral volatile organic compounds. Thus, an understanding of the molecular mechanism of the production of these compounds is necessary to create new breeds with high volatile production. In this study, two bHLH transcription factors (CpMYC2 and CpbHLH13) of Wintersweet H29 were functionally characterized to illustrate their possible role in the production of volatile compounds. The qRT-PCR results showed that the expression of CpMYC2 and CpbHLH13 increased from the flower budding to full bloom stage, indicating that these two genes may play an essential role in blooming and aroma production in wintersweet. Gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) analysis revealed that the overexpression of CpMYC2 in arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) AtMYC2-2 mutant (Salk_083483) and tobacco (Nicotiana tabaccum) genotype Petit Havana SR1 significantly increased floral volatile monoterpene, especially linalool, while the overexpression of CpbHLH13 in Arabidopsis thaliana ecotype Columbia-0 (Col-0) and tobacco genotype SR1 increased floral sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene production in both types of transgenic plants respectively. High expression of terpene synthase (TPS) genes in transgenic A. thaliana along with high expression of CpMYC2 and CpbHLH13 in transgenic plants was also observed. The application of a combination of methyl jasmonic acid (MeJA) and gibberellic acid (GA3) showed an increment in linalool production in CpMYC2-overexpressing arabidopsis plants, and the high transcript level of TPS genes also suggested the involvement of CpMYC2 in the jasmonic acid (JA) signaling pathway. These results indicate that both the CpMYC2 and CpbHLH13 transcription factors of wintersweet are possibly involved in the positive regulation and biosynthesis of monoterpene (linalool) and sesquiterpene (β-caryophyllene) in transgenic plants. This study also indicates the potential application of wintersweet as a valuable genomic material for the genetic modification of floral scent in other flowering plants that produce less volatile compounds.

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