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Emilio Peluso Neder Meyer ◽  
Maria Guiomar Frota

Digital resources for Brazilian legal history in the early 21st century cover an essential range of subjects. Official or institutional websites dominate the archives that allow users to research diverse themes, from the administration of the Portuguese colonies to the documents produced by truth commissions. Many of them are open access, fostering the democratization of the archives. To assess the most relevant ones, one must consider funds, collections, documents, and their accessibility and usability, as well as the limits for accessing Brazilian historical legal documents on the internet. Researchers of Brazilian legal history must consider the dominance of official narratives that can neglect the interpretations of other actors such as minorities. The colonial period is covered by digital resources with archives that were produced in Spain or Portugal but also by the Brazilian National Library and National Archives. The Historical Archives of the House of Deputies presents relevant resources for the period of the Brazilian Empire. The First and Second Republics historical periods count on collections of judicial rulings provided with easy and free access. The period of partial democratization between 1946 and 1964, the Brazilian dictatorship of 1964–1985, and the Third Republic that came after the Brazilian 1988 Constitution are part of a significant number of digital resources also easily accessible. Presupposing the necessity of effectiveness to the right of access to information, the process of digitalization of legal resources was consolidated and became a general practice. It dominated a wide range of institutional archives. Nonetheless, researchers must be aware of governmental limits, revisionist theories, and insufficient funding for Brazilian legal digital resources.

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-34
Kamila Tiemann Gabe ◽  
Cláudia Raulino Tramontt ◽  
Patricia Constante Jaime

Abstract Objective: This study aimed to develop a conceptual framework of the process of Food-Based Dietary Guidelines (FBDG) implementation and analyse Brazil’s employed measures to implement Dietary Guidelines for the Brazilian Population (2014). Design: Qualitative research. Setting: Aiming to develop the conceptual framework, a literature review on FBDGs implementation was carried out. Both documents scoped within the macropolitical sphere and scientific articles were reviewed. In the study case, measures took in Brazil were identified through a search on institutional websites and technical management reports of government sectors responsible for FBDG implementation in the country. Participants: This study does not involve humans. Results: The new conceptual framework frames FBDGs implementation as a part of a larger set of intersectoral public policies to promote healthy eating and highlights two main implementation ways: educational materials and public policies. Brazil has a range of policies to promote healthy eating guided by the perspective of food as a right. Most of the implemented measures focused on the concept of “FBDGs as educational materials,” although the recommendations have also been implemented in public policies. Conclusion: The FBDG implementation should be carried out in an integrated manner with multi-sector involvement. The Brazilian’s case analysis can be helpful to decision makers in food policy across the globe be inspired by the Brazilian efforts, considering that the Brazilian FBDG was one of the firsts to has adopted a multidimensional paradigm of healthy eating, including diet sustainability.

2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (3) ◽  
pp. 712-723
Chiara Reno ◽  
Elisa Maietti ◽  
Zeno Di Valerio ◽  
Marco Montalti ◽  
Maria Pia Fantini ◽  

Mass vaccination campaigns have been implemented worldwide to counteract the SARS-CoV-2/COVID-19 pandemic, however their effectiveness could be challenged by vaccine hesitancy. The tremendous rise in the use of social media have made them acquire a leading role as an information source, thus representing a crucial factor at play that could contribute to increase or mitigate vaccine hesitancy, as information sources play a pivotal role in shaping public opinion and perceptions. The aims of the study were to investigate if information sources could affect the attitude towards COVID-19 vaccination and if they could act as a mediator in the relationship between individual characteristics and vaccine hesitancy. A cross-sectional online survey was conducted by a professional panellist on a representative sample of 1011 citizens from the Emilia-Romagna region in Italy in January 2021. A mediation analysis using structural equation modelling was performed. Our results show how social media directly or indirectly increases vaccine hesitancy towards COVID-19 vaccination, while the opposite effect was observed for institutional websites. Given the global widespread use of social media, their use should be enhanced to disseminate scientifically sound information to a greater audience to counteract vaccine hesitancy, while at the same time continuing to promote and update institutional websites that have proven to be effective in reducing vaccine hesitancy.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (4) ◽  
pp. 2434-2451
Edilene Mizael De Carvalho Perboni ◽  
Adriana De Cássia Santana Silva ◽  
Ana Carolina Sandry Francisco Dos Reis ◽  
Luana Karina Siqueira ◽  
Solange Aparecida Sebastião

RESUMO Este estudo investiga o ensino da língua brasileira de sinais na modalidade a distância em um curso de formação de professores. Tem como objetivo compreender as implicações conceituais, metodológicas e práticas na formação inicial de pedagogos. Divide-se em três seções pelas quais foi possível desenvolver objetivos específicos e educação de surdos nos contextos históricos mundial, de Brasil e Minas Gerais; conhecer, na visão dos gestores, quais as implicações pedagógicas e institucionais interferem na implantação desse processo, a partir do que foi possível destacar quais limites se apresentam para o processo de ensino e aprendizagem da língua brasileira de sinais a distância na formação docente. Os procedimentos metodológicos utilizados se basearam em fundamentos da pesquisa qualitativa; os estudos teóricos se fundamentaram em autores que debatem a educação de surdos, o ensino da língua de sinais e a educação a distância, cujos referenciais teóricos e legais foram coletados em repositórios institucionais de teses e pesquisas, sites institucionais da área da educação e de legislações referentes aos temas investigados, bem como no Scientific Eletronic Library Online (SciELO) e em periódicos científicos educacionais atuais.   ABSTRACT This study investigates the teaching of Brazilian Sign Language at a distance in a teacher education course. It aims to understand the conceptual, methodological and practical implications in the initial training of educators. It is divided into three sections through which it was possible to develop specific objectives and deaf education in the historical contexts of the world, Brazil and Minas Gerais; to know, in the view of managers, what pedagogical and institutional implications interfere with the implementation of this process, from which it was possible to highlight what limits are presented for the process of teaching and learning Brazilian sign language at a distance in teacher training. The methodological procedures used were based on qualitative research foundations; the theoretical studies were based on authors who discuss deaf education, sign language teaching and distance education, whose theoretical and legal references were collected in institutional repositories of theses and research, institutional websites in the field of education and legislation on the topics investigated, as well as in the Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO) and in current educational scientific journals.  

2021 ◽  
Vol ahead-of-print (ahead-of-print) ◽  
Rosa Lombardi ◽  
Antonietta Cosentino ◽  
Alessandro Sura ◽  
Michele Galeotti

Purpose This paper aims to examine the European Union (EU) 95/2014 Directive’s impact on large public companies. It chose Italy as a pivotal country that made non-financial information assurance mandatory, going beyond the EU Directive’s original requirements. Specifically, it investigates how the UE Directive fosters institutionalisation of the non-financial reporting (NFR) process in organisations. Design/methodology/approach Two large public companies in Italy are used as case studies. Data are gathered from annual and integrated reports, institutional websites and semi-structured interviews with the managers and employees involved in different organisational positions. The authors adopted the neo-institutional theory as a theoretical lens to identify the organisations’ response to the (external) institutional pressures influencing corporate reporting practices. Findings The findings demonstrate how the EU Directive fostered changes to large public companies’ reporting practices and external pressures contributed to influencing changes to internal organisational practices in terms of new internal processes, procedures and structures. These changes are motivated by the companies’ need to guarantee reliable information to be produced in their non-financial reports. Practical implications This paper helps academics and policymakers to advance NFR practices by understanding regulatory factors that can foster changes in the internal reporting process and responsibility within organisations. Originality/value The findings provide some empirical insights to foster reflections on the EU Directive’s effectiveness in changing reporting practices. This paper contributes to enriching the literature on institutional theory in shaping mandatory non-financial disclosure by identifying the institutional pressures influencing the effectiveness of regulations to change NFR practices.

2021 ◽  
pp. 52-70
Laura Solito ◽  
Letizia Materassi

This work aims to investigate the role played by public sector visual communi-cation within the specific context of an emergency. The analysis of the in-fographics divulged during the pandemic will focus on the meanings, themes, lin-guistic registers and narrative methods that have characterized the infor-mation divulged by the Ministry of Health and by Italian Regional Governments through institutional websites and social media accounts. The emergence of new idioms and language in the e-health management sector represents an opportunity to reflect on the roles and skills of public-sector communicators, and on emergen-cy communication as such.

2021 ◽  
Vol 5 ◽  
Samuel Appiah Ofori ◽  
Samuel Jerry Cobbina ◽  
Samuel Obiri

The current and projected warming of the earth is unequivocal with humans playing a strong role as both perpetrators and victims. The warming on the African continent is projected to be greater than the global average with an increased average temperature of 3–6°C by the end of the century under a high Representative Concentration Pathway. In Africa, the Sub-Saharan region is identified as the most vulnerable to the changing climate due to its very low capacity to adapt to or mitigate climate change. While it is common to identify studies conducted to assess how climate change independently impacts water, land, or food resources, very limited studies have sought to address the interlinkages, synergies, and trade-offs existing between climate change, water, land, and food (WLF) resources as a system in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). The climate change and WLF security nexus, therefore, seeks to address this shortfall in literature and subsequently serve as a relevant source of information for decision-making and policy implementation concerning climate change mitigation and adaptation. In this study, 41 relevant studies were selected from Web of Science, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, and institutional websites. We provide information on the independent relationships between climate change and WLF resources, and further discuss the existing inter-linkages between climate change and the WLF security in SSA using the nexus approach, with recommendations on how decision making and policy implementations should be done using the climate change and WLF security nexus approach.

2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (13) ◽  
pp. 2920
Giuseppe Lisco ◽  
Anna De Tullio ◽  
Assunta Stragapede ◽  
Antonio Giovanni Solimando ◽  
Federica Albanese ◽  

: Background and aim. The review aimed to summarize advances in the topic of endocrine diseases and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Methods. Scientific and institutional websites and databases were searched and data were collected and organized, when plausible, to angle the discussion toward the following clinical issues. (1) Are patients with COVID-19 at higher risk of developing acute or late-onset endocrine diseases or dysfunction? (2) May the underlying endocrine diseases or dysfunctions be considered risk factors for poor prognosis once the infection has occurred? (3) Are there defined strategies to manage endocrine diseases despite pandemic-related constraints? Herein, the authors considered only relevant and more frequently observed endocrine diseases and disorders related to the hypothalamic-pituitary region, thyroid and parathyroid glands, calcium-phosphorus homeostasis and osteoporosis, adrenal glands, and gonads. Main. Data highlight the basis of some pathophysiological mechanisms and anatomical alterations of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-induced endocrine dysfunctions. Some conditions, such as adrenal insufficiency and cortisol excess, may be risk factors of worse clinical progression once the infection has occurred. These at-risk populations may require adequate education to avoid the SARS-CoV-2 infection and adequately manage medical therapy during the pandemic, even in emergencies. Endocrine disease management underwent a palpable restraint, especially procedures requiring obligate access to healthcare facilities for diagnostic and therapeutic purposes. Strategies of clinical triage to prioritize medical consultations, laboratory, instrumental evaluations, and digital telehealth solutions should be implemented to better deal with this probably long-term situation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 9 ◽  
Giovanna Elisa Calabrò ◽  
Elettra Carini ◽  
Alessia Tognetto ◽  
Silvia Mancinelli ◽  
Laura Sarnari ◽  

Background: Vaccination coverages need to be constantly maintained and improved with the implementation of vaccination strategies. This paper describes the development of an evidence-based tool to guide their planning and evaluation.Methods: A scoping review was performed in MEDLINE and institutional websites to search for similar available tools. A first version of the tool was developed considering review results and a four-step method used for the control and continuous improvement of processes and products, namely the Deming cycle. A panel of eight experts was then involved in a Delphi study for the finalization of the tool that was eventually discussed in a face-to-face meeting.Results: The scoping review found only one document and the first version of the tool was composed of 30 items. After the Delphi first round, 11 additional items were suggested and 5 original items amended. After the Delphi second round 41 items were eventually included. During the face-to-face meeting, 7 items were recognized as requisites for setting vaccination strategies, whereas 17 as relevant ones.Conclusions: Current public health challenges impose the need for evidence-based tools to organize effective vaccination strategies. Our tool is a first proposal which aims to reflect this focus.

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