Network Life Time
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Author(s):  
Mohammad Khalaf Rahim Al-juaifari ◽  
Jammel Mohammed Ali Mohammed Mona ◽  
Zainab Abd Abbas

<p>Despite proposing a number of algorithms and protocols, especially those related to routing, for the purpose of reducing energy consumption in wireless sensor networks, which is one of the most important issues facing this type of network. In this research paper, energy consumption and cost are calculated taking into account energy consumption and the amount of data transferred to a thousand nodes through specific paths towards the mobile sink. The proposed model simulated by sending various amounts of data with specific path to know the energy consumption of each track and the network life time with 250, 500, and 1000 bits. Cost calculated using various weight for each track of these paths and the coefficient of movement time and path loss factor and others related to the transmission and receiving circuits. And finally, the results compared with a previous method it showed the efficiency of our method used and calculating 1000 nodes with various amount of bits to show the experimental results. Deep learning used to remember each and every path of each position or nearby to avoid calculation cost later.</p>


Author(s):  
Sreevidya VK

Abstract: Energy awareness is an essential design issue in wireless sensor network. Therefore, attention must be given to the routing protocols since they might differ depending on the application and network architecture. It is desired to design the energy efficient routing protocols to conserve the power supply of sensor node and prolong its lifetime. In this paper Network Coding-Energy efficient geographic routing protocol (NC-EGRPM) in Wireless Sensor network is an energy efficient scheme which prolong the network life time using the mobile sinks. These algorithms focus on the efficiency of network coding, which could be adoptive, flexible, and intelligent enough to distribute the load among the sensor nodes that can enhance the network lifetime. By using NC (Network Coding), we propose an energy efficienct algorithm to handle uncertain level decision better than other models. We also use the concept of XOR encoding and decoding as a mechanism not only for enhancing energy efficiency but also for reducing the end-to-end-delay. XOR-based coding works on a hop-by-hop basis, i.e. packets encoded by a node are decoded by its neighbouring nodes. The idea is that each node v can combine packets using bitwise XOR operations in order to produce an encoded packet. We are implementing our proposed work using NS2 and measure its performance. Keywords: Network coding, XOR, NS2, WSN


2021 ◽  
Vol 10 (6) ◽  
pp. 3353-3360
Author(s):  
Aso Ahmed Majeed ◽  
Baban Ahmed Mahmood ◽  
Ahmed Chalak Shakir

The research domain for wireless sensor networks (WSN) has been extensively conducted due to innovative technologies and research directions that have come up addressing the usability of WSN under various schemes. This domain permits dependable tracking of a diversity of environments for both military and civil applications. The key management mechanism is a primary protocol for keeping the privacy and confidentiality of the data transmitted among different sensor nodes in WSNs. Since node's size is small; they are intrinsically limited by inadequate resources such as battery life-time and memory capacity. The proposed secure and energy saving protocol (SESP) for wireless sensor networks) has a significant impact on the overall network life-time and energy dissipation. To encrypt sent messsages, the SESP uses the public-key cryptography’s concept. It depends on sensor nodes' identities (IDs) to prevent the messages repeated; making security goals- authentication, confidentiality, integrity, availability, and freshness to be achieved. Finally, simulation results show that the proposed approach produced better energy consumption and network life-time compared to LEACH protocol; sensors are dead after 900 rounds in the proposed SESP protocol. While, in the low-energy adaptive clustering hierarchy (LEACH) scheme, the sensors are dead after 750 rounds.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Swapna Ch ◽  
Vijayashree R Budyal

Abstract The most challenging task in wireless sensor network is energy efficiency, as energy is the major constraint in the wireless sensor network to improve the life time of the network. Hence developing algorithms to improve network life time is the major task. In wireless sensor network most of the energy is wasted while gathering the data, hence an efficient algorithm which conserves energy has to be designed. Thus our proposed work A Novel Data Gathering Algorithm for Wireless Sensor Networks using Artificial Intelligence (NDGAI) uses mobile element and deals with the conservation of energy while gathering the data. Appropriate clustering, cluster leader selection and proper path determination of mobile element helps to conserve energy and improve the over all network life time. In our proposed work initially the clusters are forged by using Amended Expectation Maximization(AEM) algorithm, which is the maximum likelihood estimate. It is used along with Gap statistic method to find the optimal number of clusters. AEM algorithm helps in obtaining the centres of the cluster with maximum number of nodes near the cluster centres. For each cluster, Cluster Leader (CL) is selected by using Fuzzy Logic. Fuzzy logic selects the node which is near to the cluster centre by using parameters such as Closeness of node to the Cluster Centroid, direction of node towards base station, number of Neighbouring Nodes. After the CL’s are determined, to reduce the path length virtual points(VP) are selected so that mobile element reaches this virtual point and collects the data. These VP’s are selected only when the CL has data in it. The mobile elements can reach these virtual points intelligently by using optimal path,that is obtained by using hybrid of Particle Swarm Optimization and Artificial Bee Colony algorithm. Thus the mobile element travels in the optimal path and gathers the data from the entire network intelligently and efficiently with less amount of energy. With this approach the performance and life time of the network is improved while gathering the data. The simulation results are compared with Scalable Grid-Based Data Gathering Algorithm for Environmental Monitoring Wireless Sensor Networks (SGBDN) and proved that the proposed method is better than SGBDN .


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sajjadul Latif

The wireless sensor network is an important element of energy efficient "Smart Buildings" to collect different types of data and to optimize the energy demand management (EDM) system. It is very important to save energy of the wireless sensor network to prolong the network life-time. In this thesis, a distributed, quasi-planned Medium Access Control (MAC) scheduling algorithm with priority control has been proposed for smart building's WSN. The protocol reduces the wasted energy of sensors during idle listening, collision, and overhearing processes. The system considers multiple classes of sensors based on their roles. The protocol establishes confirmed communication for steady traffic and gives adaptive control for varying traffic load. Hence, it reduces the total energy requirement for each sensor class. It uses a novel statistically inspired algorithm to dynamically configure the cycle length for reducing latency. Overall, the new algorithm shows better energy performance than many conventional WSN MAC protocols.


2021 ◽  
Author(s):  
Sajjadul Latif

The wireless sensor network is an important element of energy efficient "Smart Buildings" to collect different types of data and to optimize the energy demand management (EDM) system. It is very important to save energy of the wireless sensor network to prolong the network life-time. In this thesis, a distributed, quasi-planned Medium Access Control (MAC) scheduling algorithm with priority control has been proposed for smart building's WSN. The protocol reduces the wasted energy of sensors during idle listening, collision, and overhearing processes. The system considers multiple classes of sensors based on their roles. The protocol establishes confirmed communication for steady traffic and gives adaptive control for varying traffic load. Hence, it reduces the total energy requirement for each sensor class. It uses a novel statistically inspired algorithm to dynamically configure the cycle length for reducing latency. Overall, the new algorithm shows better energy performance than many conventional WSN MAC protocols.


2021 ◽  
Vol 13 (5) ◽  
pp. 113
Author(s):  
Michele Bonanni ◽  
Francesco Chiti ◽  
Romano Fantacci ◽  
Laura Pierucci

Software Defined Networking (SDN) provides a new perspective for the Internet of Things (IoT), since, with the separation of the control from the data planes, it is viable to optimise the traditional networks operation management. In particular, the SDN Controller has a global vision of the network of sensors/actuators domain, allowing real-time network nodes and data flows reconfiguration. As a consequence, devices, usually facing limited communications and computing resources, are relieved of the route selection task in a distributed and, thus, suboptimal way. This paper proposes a SDN-IoT architecture, specifically focusing on the Controller design, which dynamically optimises in real time the end-to-end flows delivery. In particular, the dynamic routing policy adaptation is based on the real-time estimation of the network status and it allows jointly minimising the end-to-end latency and energy consumption and, consequently, to improve the network life time. The performance of the proposed approach is analysed in terms of the average latency, energy consumption and overhead, pointing out a better behaviour in comparison with the existing distributed approaches.


Author(s):  
K Pavan Kumar Reddy Et.al

In wireless sensor networks (WSNs), energy constraint of node is the major issue, as the sensor may be deployed in the area where energy backup or quick replacements may not be available. In such cases, preserving the node energy and prolonging the network life time play crucial role in wireless sensor networks. Similarly, sensor nodes are highly vulnerable to attacks, attackers can easily tamper the sensor node and compromise it. Thus to overcome above stated two problems, the proposed work ensures shortest path routing, which ensures network life time of sensor nodes and the trust based routing, which avoids node compromise attacks. The proposed shortest path routing algorithms takes route through multi-hop nodes to corresponding sink. The shortest path based on the geographical routing strategy chooses the nodes nearest to the routing node and sink node. The novel routing framework proposed in this work considered shortest path with trust based routes. The node's energy is considered to taking reliable node on the routing path, which ensure the packet delivery and avoids any node failure due to less energy. The node's trust value is evaluated with three type, which ensure that the paths created are more reliable


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