pdx models
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2022 ◽  
Vol 14 (1) ◽  
Vanessa F. Bonazzi ◽  
Olga Kondrashova ◽  
Deborah Smith ◽  
Katia Nones ◽  
Asmerom T. Sengal ◽  

Abstract Background Endometrial cancer (EC) is a major gynecological cancer with increasing incidence. It comprises four molecular subtypes with differing etiology, prognoses, and responses to chemotherapy. In the future, clinical trials testing new single agents or combination therapies will be targeted to the molecular subtype most likely to respond. As pre-clinical models that faithfully represent the molecular subtypes of EC are urgently needed, we sought to develop and characterize a panel of novel EC patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models. Methods Here, we report whole exome or whole genome sequencing of 11 PDX models and their matched primary tumor. Analysis of multiple PDX lineages and passages was performed to study tumor heterogeneity across lineages and/or passages. Based on recent reports of frequent defects in the homologous recombination (HR) pathway in EC, we assessed mutational signatures and HR deficiency scores and correlated these with in vivo responses to the PARP inhibitor (PARPi) talazoparib in six PDXs representing the copy number high/p53-mutant and mismatch-repair deficient molecular subtypes of EC. Results PDX models were successfully generated from grade 2/3 tumors, including three uterine carcinosarcomas. The models showed similar histomorphology to the primary tumors and represented all four molecular subtypes of EC, including five mismatch-repair deficient models. The different PDX lineages showed a wide range of inter-tumor and intra-tumor heterogeneity. However, for most PDX models, one arm recapitulated the molecular landscape of the primary tumor without major genomic drift. An in vivo response to talazoparib was detected in four copy number high models. Two models (carcinosarcomas) showed a response consistent with stable disease and two models (one copy number high serous EC and another carcinosarcoma) showed significant tumor growth inhibition, albeit one consistent with progressive disease; however, all lacked the HR deficiency genomic signature. Conclusions EC PDX models represent the four molecular subtypes of disease and can capture intra-tumor heterogeneity of the original primary tumor. PDXs of the copy number high molecular subtype showed sensitivity to PARPi; however, deeper and more durable responses will likely require combination of PARPi with other agents.

2022 ◽  
Yunhua Xu ◽  
Linping Gu ◽  
Yingqi Li ◽  
Ruiying Zhao ◽  
Hong Jian ◽  

Abstract Background Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) driven by MET exon 14 skipping (METex14) occurs in 3-4% of NSCLC cases and defines a subset of patients with distinct characteristics. MET targeted therapy has led to strong clinical responses, however little is known about aquired resistance to drugs in these patients. Patient derived xenograft (PDX) models are recognized as excellent preclinical models to facilitate the understanding of the mechanisms underlying drug resistance. Methods We describe a patient case harboring METex14 who exhibited drug resistance after treatment with crizotinib. Subcutaneous xenografts were generated from pretreatment and post-resistance patient specimens. PDX mice were then treated with MET inhibitors (crizotinib and tepotinib) to evaluate their drug response. DNA and RNA sequencing analysis was performed on patient tumor specimens and matching xenografts. Results PDXs preserved most of the histological and molecular profiles of the parental tumors. Drug resistance to MET targeted therapy was confirmed in PDX models through in vivo drug analysis. Newly aquired MET D1228N mutations and EGFR amplificated were detected in patient-resistant tumor specimens. Although the mutations were not detected in the PDX, EGFR overexpression was observed in RNA sequencing analysis indicating possible off target resistance through the EGFR bypass signaling pathway. Conclusions We established and characterized a pair of METex14 NSCLC patient-derived xenografts (PDXs), including the first crizotinib resistant METex14 PDX. This model will be a powerful tool for testing hypotheses of drug resistance mechanisms and investigations into novel therapeutic strategies.

2022 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Zuhua Chen ◽  
Jiajia Yuan ◽  
Yingying Xu ◽  
Cheng Zhang ◽  
Zhongwu Li ◽  

RC48-ADC is a novel humanized antibody specific for human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)in conjugation with a microtubule inhibitor via a cleavable linker. This study was to evaluate the antitumor activity and mechanism of RC48-ADC in gastric cancer (GC) and explore the population that may benefit from RC48-ADC treatment. Four human GC cell lines and nine patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models were exploited to evaluate the antitumor effect of RC48-ADC or trastuzumab treatment in vitro and in vivo. The expression and phosphorylation of HER2 were assessed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) staining. Critical molecules of downstream PI3K/AKT and cell cycle and apoptosis signaling pathways were detected and quantified by immunoblotting. Combined with preliminary results of preclinical research, three patients with IHC3+, IHC2+/FISH+, and IHC2+/FISH- of HER2 were enrolled to verify the efficacy of RC48-ADC treatment in advanced GC. In vitro, RC48-ADC had superior antiproliferative effects in a dose-dependent manner on GC cells, especially on HER2-positive cells. In vivo, RC48-ADC exceeded trastuzumab in GC PDX models with HER2 expression, even in models with moderate to low expression of HER2. Further exploration of mechanism showed that RC48-ADC exerted the antitumor effect by inhibiting phosphorylation of HER2, inducing G2/M phase arrest and cell apoptosis in HER2-expressed PDX models. In clinical practice, RC48-ADC had satisfactory efficacy in HER2-positive and HER2 moderately expressed GC patients and demonstrated promising efficacy in HER2-positive patients who have progressed after anti-HER2 therapy. In conclusion, RC48-ADC exerted promising antitumor activity in HER2-positive as well as score of 2+ in IHC and ISH-negative AGC patients after progression of systematic treatment.

2021 ◽  
Dan Sun ◽  
Dan Filipescu ◽  
Dan Hasson ◽  
Deepak K. Singh ◽  
Saul Carcamo ◽  

AbstractMacroH2A variants have been associated with tumor suppression through inhibition of proliferation and metastasis, as well as their role in cellular senescence. However, their role in regulating the dormant state of disseminated cancer cells (DCCs) remains unclear. Here we reveal that solitary dormant DCCs display increased levels of macroH2A variants in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma PDX models and patient samples compared to proliferating primary or metastatic lesions. We further demonstrate that microenvironmental and stress adaptive signals such as TGFβ2 and p38α/β, which induce DCC dormancy, upregulate macroH2A expression. Functionally, we find that overexpression of macroH2A variants is sufficient to induce tumor cells into dormancy and notably, inducible expression of the macroH2A2 variant suppresses the growth of DCCs into overt metastasis. However, this dormant state does not require well-characterized dormancy factors such as DEC2 and NR2F1, suggesting alternate pathways. Our transcriptomic analyses reveal that macroH2A2 overexpression inhibits E2F, RAS and MYC signaling programs, while upregulating inflammatory cytokines commonly secreted by senescent cells. Taken together, our results demonstrate that macroH2A2 enforces a stable dormant phenotype in DCCs by activating a select subset of dormancy and senescence genes that limit metastasis initiation.

2021 ◽  
Vol 3 (Supplement_6) ◽  
pp. vi3-vi3
Jo Sasame ◽  
Naoki Ikegaya ◽  
Yohei Miyake ◽  
Takahiro Hayashi ◽  
Akito Oshima ◽  

Abstract The BRAFV600E mutation results in the constitutive activation of downstream mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway that promotes tumor growth. Recently, molecular targeted therapy using BRAF/MEK inhibitor has been reported for BRAFV600E mutant high-grade glioma, but the therapeutic effect is limited by the emergence of drug resistance. Herein, we established paired BRAFV600E mutant glioblastoma (GBM) patient-derived xenograft (PDX) models, which were derived from tumors at prior to and recurrence after molecular targeted therapy. These PDX models were found to extensively recapitulate the histology, genetic abnormalities, and even the clinical course of the patients. Furthermore, BRAF/MEK inhibitor gradually caused resistance in cell lines derived from specimens that initially responded to molecular targeted therapy. In this study, genomic and epigenomic changes had little effect on the resistance mechanism. On the other hand, we found that hyperactivation of the MAPK pathway through c-Raf and the AKT/mTOR pathway primarily caused resistance to molecular targeted therapy in BRAFV600E mutant GBM. Through a high throughput drug screening, we find that HSP90 inhibitor with BRAF/MEK inhibitor coordinately deactivates MAPK pathway and AKT/mTOR pathway, and mediates potent toxicity in vitro and in vivo in refractory and acquired resistant models. These findings support that this therapeutic approach can overcome the limitation of current molecular targeted therapy in BRAFV600E mutant GBM.

BMC Cancer ◽  
2021 ◽  
Vol 21 (1) ◽  
Zhongjian Chen ◽  
Chenxi Yang ◽  
Zhenying Guo ◽  
Siyu Song ◽  
Yun Gao ◽  

Abstract Background Malignant pleural mesothelioma (MPM) is a rare and aggressive carcinoma located in pleural cavity. Due to lack of effective diagnostic biomarkers and therapeutic targets in MPM, the prognosis is extremely poor. Because of difficulties in sample extraction, and the high rate of misdiagnosis, MPM is rarely studied. Therefore, novel modeling methodology is crucially needed to facilitate MPM research. Methods A novel patient-derived xenograft (PDX) modeling strategy was designed, which included preliminary screening of patients with pleural thickening using computerized tomography (CT) scan, further reviewing history of disease and imaging by a senior sonographer as well as histopathological analysis by a senior pathologist, and PDX model construction using ultrasound-guided pleural biopsy from MPM patients. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics was further utilized for investigating circulating metabolic features of the PDX models. Univariate and multivariate analysis, and pathway analysis were performed to explore the differential metabolites, enriched metabolism pathways and potential metabolic targets. Results After screening using our strategy, 5 out of 116 patients were confirmed to be MPM, and their specimens were used for modeling. Two PDX models were established successfully. Metabolomics analysis revealed significant metabolic shifts in PDX models, such as dysregulations in amino acid metabolism, TCA cycle and glycolysis, and nucleotide metabolism. Conclusions To sum up, we suggested a novel modeling strategy that may facilitate specimen availability for MM research, and by applying metabolomics in this model, several metabolic features were identified, whereas future studies with large sample size are needed.

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