Multiple Antibiotics
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2023 ◽  
Vol 83 ◽  
S. Arbab ◽  
H. Ullah ◽  
X. Wei ◽  
W. Wang ◽  
S. U. Ahmad ◽  

Abstract The objective of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of common antibiotics against different microorganisms in apparently healthy cattle in Shandong province and its suburb. A total of 220 nasal swab samples were collected and cultured for bacteriological evaluation. All the bacteria isolates after preliminary identification were subjected to antibiogram studies following disc diffusion method. It was found in the study that E. coli is the most commonly associated isolate (21%), followed by Klebsiella spp. (18%), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (13%), Salmonella spp. (15%), Shigella spp (12%), and Proteus spp (11%). While the antibiogram studies reveled that highest number of bacterial isolates showed resistance to Ampicillin (95%), followed by Augmentin (91%), Cefuroxime (85%) and Tetracycline (95%) of (Escherichia coli and Klebsiella spp). In the case of pseudomonas spp. and Salmonella the highest resistance was showed by Ampicillin (90%) followed by Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid (80%), Cefixime (90%), and Erythromycin (80%). In Shigella spp and Salmonella spp highest resistance was showed by Amoxicillin, Ceftazidime, Augmentin (60%), and Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid (50%). It is concluded that in vitro antibiogram studies of bacterial isolates revealed higher resistance for Ampicillin, Augmentin, Cefuroxime, Cefixime, Tetracycline, Erythromycin, and Amoxicillin + Clavulanic Acid. The high multiple Antibiotics resistance indexes (MARI) observed in all the isolates in this study ranging from 0.6 to 0.9. MARI value of >0.2 is suggests multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria and indicate presence of highly resistant bacteria.

2021 ◽  
Vol 569 ◽  
pp. 151084
Tianyu Wang ◽  
Yong Yang ◽  
Qinghua Deng ◽  
Xiaoyue Zhang ◽  
Lijun Xiong ◽  

2021 ◽  
pp. 1-15
Clement Opoku-Temeng ◽  
Natalia Malachowa ◽  
Scott D. Kobayashi ◽  
Frank R. DeLeo

<i>Klebsiella pneumoniae</i> (<i>K. pneumoniae</i>) is a Gram-negative commensal bacterium and opportunistic pathogen. In healthy individuals, the innate immune system is adept at protecting against <i>K. pneumoniae</i> infection. Notably, the serum complement system and phagocytic leukocytes (e.g., neutrophils) are highly effective at eliminating <i>K. pneumoniae</i> and thereby preventing severe disease. On the other hand, the microbe is a major cause of healthcare-associated infections, especially in individuals with underlying susceptibility factors, such as pre-existing severe illness or immune suppression. The burden of <i>K. pneumoniae</i> infections in hospitals is compounded by antibiotic resistance. Treatment of these infections is often difficult largely because the microbes are usually resistant to multiple antibiotics (multidrug resistant [MDR]). There are a limited number of treatment options for these infections and new therapies, and preventative measures are needed. Here, we review host defense against <i>K. pneumoniae</i> and discuss recent therapeutic measures and vaccine approaches directed to treat and prevent severe disease caused by MDR <i>K. pneumoniae</i>.

Yevheniia Vashchyk ◽  
Dmytro Morozenko ◽  
Nataliia Seliukova ◽  
Andriy Zakhariev ◽  
Roman Dotsenko ◽  

The aim: the aim of the research is an analytical review of the scientific literature on Рseudomonas aeruginosa as a priority group representative of bacteria with multiple antibiotics resistance. Materials and methods. The research was conducted by the method of scientific literature open source analysis: PubMed, Elsevier, electronic resources of the National Library named after V. I. Vernadsky and others. Results. The problem of antibiotic resistance is rightly called the “apocalypse of the XXI century”. P. aeruginosa bacteria are characterized by a very high natural ability to form resistant forms to antimicrobial drugs due to the formation of specific resistance genes, the ability to resist the entry of antibiotics into the cell or remove antibiotics from the cell, and form biofilms. A characteristic feature of the epidemic and epizootic processes of P. aeruginosa, as an opportunistic ubiquitous microorganism is host-pathogenic interaction - the interaction of the pathogen with the host organism. The peculiarity of this bacterium is opportunism and long-term persistence in the body of the host and in the environment. The global trend towards the spread of antibiotic-resistant gram-negative bacteria, including P. aeruginosa, underscores the need to develop comprehensive response strategies targeting all sectors of health. Conclusions. Bacteria P. aeruginosa is classified in 1th Critical Group of the WHO list of resistant to antibiotics "priority pathogens". Among the main reasons that contribute to the emergence of resistance are irrational antibiotic therapy in both humans and animals, and the use of antibiotics as growth stimulants in animal husbandry. While more R&D is vital, alone, it cannot solve the problem. To address resistance, there must also be better prevention of infections and appropriate use of existing antibiotics in humans and animals, as well as rational use of any new antibiotics that are developed in future. New methods of combating antibiotic resistance and antibacterial substances, alternatives to antibiotics (biofilm-destroying drugs, antimicrobial peptides (AMP), bacteriophages, nanopreparations, etc.) can make a positive contribution to overcoming the multiple drug resistance of gram-negatives

Pooi Yin Chung ◽  
Ranon Earn Yueh Khoo ◽  
Hui Shan Liew ◽  
May Lee Low

Abstract Background Methicillin-resistance S. aureus (MRSA) possesses the ability to resist multiple antibiotics and form biofilm. Currently, vancomycin remains the last drug of choice for treatment of MRSA infection. The emergence of vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA) has necessitated the development of new therapeutic agents against MRSA. In this study, the antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities of two copper-complexes derived from Schiff base (SBDs) were tested individually, and in combination with oxacillin (OXA) and vancomycin (VAN) against reference strains methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The toxicity of the SBDs was also evaluated on a non-cancerous mammalian cell line. Methods The antimicrobial activity was tested against the planktonic S. aureus cells using the microdilution broth assay, while the antibiofilm activity were evaluated using the crystal violet and resazurin assays. The cytotoxicity of the SBDs was assessed on MRC5 (normal lung tissue), using the MTT assay. Results The individual SBDs showed significant reduction of biomass and metabolic activity in both S. aureus strains. Combinations of the SBDs with OXA and VAN were mainly additive against the planktonic cells and cells in the biofilm. Both the compounds showed moderate toxicity against the MRC5 cell line. The selectivity index suggested that the compounds were more cytotoxic to S. aureus than the normal cells. Conclusion Both the SBD compounds demonstrated promising antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities and have the potential to be further developed as an antimicrobial agent against infections caused by MRSA.

Chon Sum Ong ◽  
Nur Amalina Binti Che Din ◽  
Celine Mien Er Fong ◽  
Amira Nabiha Binti Jamalludin

An accident with a tamping iron made Phineas Gage a historically famous brain-injury survivor. (1) Each year, approximately 1.6 million people sustain traumatic brain injury, leading to 52,000 deaths annually. (2) However, there is limited literature regarding traumatic brain penetration injury that could be found. A 42-year-old male with psychosis forcefully inserted a butter knife through nostril, traversed via sella turcica into posterior corpus callosum in a mental health facility. He was intubated in his local hospital and transferred over to a tertiary hospital for neurosurgical intervention. Radiological imaging showed impingement of knife against the posterior cerebral artery (PCA), multiple brain infarcts, intraventricular, and subarachnoid haemorrhage. The knife was removed after securing the PCA with the collaboration between neurosurgery and interventional radiology team. Sinus repair was immediately performed by the otorhinolaryngologists. External ventricular drain was inserted due to hydrocephalus secondary to brain haemorrhage. He eventually developed ventriculitis leading to sepsis and was treated with multiple antibiotics. The traumatic brain injury led to anterior hypopituitarism and diabetes insipidus which was treated using hormone therapy. He not only survived the fatal brain injury but also regained his Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score. This case demonstrates the potential of a multi-disciplinary and specialty approach to achieve outcomes a single specialty team could not. The outcome of a case which was deemed to be a non-survivable brain injury was made different due to the bold decision making, experience and innovative surgical strategy. Future research is needed to better understand and manage brain penetration injury.International Journal of Human and Health Sciences Supplementary Issue-2: 2021 Page: S27

Xingshan Han ◽  
Dongxia Shen ◽  
Qin Xiong ◽  
Beihua Bao ◽  
Wenbo Zhang ◽  

Soybean root rot caused by the oomycete Phytophthora sojae is a serious soil-borne disease threatening soybean production in China. Bacillus velezensis FZB42 is a model strain for Gram-positive plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria and is able to produce multiple antibiotics. In this study, we demonstrated that B. velezensis FZB42 can efficiently antagonize P. sojae. The underlying mechanism for the inhibition was then investigated. The FZB42 mutants deficient in the synthesis of lipopeptides (bacillomycin D and fengycin), known for antifungal activities, and polyketides (bacillaene, difficidin, and macrolactin), known for antibacterial activities, were not impaired in their antagonism toward P. sojae ; in contrast, mutants deficient in bacilysin biosynthesis completely lost their antagonistic activities toward P. sojae , indicating that bacilysin was responsible for the activity. Isolated pure bacilysin confirmed this inference. Bacilysin was previously shown to be antagonistic mainly toward prokaryotic bacteria rather than eukaryotes. Here, we found that bacilysin could severely damage the hyphal structures of P. sojae and lead to the loss of their intracellular contents. A device was invented allowing interactions between P. sojae and B. velezensis FZB42 on nutrient agar. In this manner, the effect of FZB42 on P. sojae was studied by transcriptomics. FZB42 significantly inhibited the expression of P. sojae genes related to growth, macromolecule biosynthesis, pathogenicity, and ribosomes. Among them, the genes for pectate lyase were the most significantly downregulated. Additionally, we showed that bacilysin effectively prevents soybean sprouts from being infected by P. sojae and could antagonize diverse Phytophthora species, such as P. palmivora , P. melonis , P. capsici , P. litchi , and, most importantly, P. infestans . Importance Phytophthora spp. are widespread eukaryotic phytopathogens and often extremely harmful. Phytophthora can infect many types of plants important to agriculture and forestry and thus cause large economic losses. Perhaps due to inappropriate recognition of Phytophthora as a common pathogen in history, research on the biological control of Phytophthora is limited. This study shows that B. velezensis FZB42 can antagonize various Phytophthora species and prevent the infection of soybean seedlings by P. sojae . The antibiotic produced by FZB42, bacilysin, which was previously known to have antibacterial effectiveness, is responsible for the inhibitory action against Phytophthora . We further showed that some Phytophthora genes and pathways may be targeted in future biocontrol studies. Therefore, our data provide a basis for the development of new tools for the prevention and control of root and stem rot in soybean and other plant diseases caused by Phytophthora .

Zhongning Yu ◽  
Lu Huang ◽  
Zhuomin Zhang ◽  
Gongke Li

2021 ◽  
Vol 12 ◽  
Nan Xu ◽  
Chong Qiu ◽  
Qiyuan Yang ◽  
Yunzeng Zhang ◽  
Mingqi Wang ◽  

Phenol is a common environmental contaminant. The purpose of this study was to isolate phenol-degrading microorganisms from wastewater in the sections of the Chinese Medicine Manufactory. The phenol-degrading Acinetobacter lwoffii NL1 was identified based on a combination of biochemical characteristics and 16S rRNA genes. To analyze the molecular mechanism, the whole genome of A. lwoffii NL1 was sequenced, yielding 3499 genes on one circular chromosome and three plasmids. Enzyme activity analysis showed that A. lwoffii NL1 degraded phenol via the ortho-cleavage rather than the meta-cleavage pathway. Key genes encoding phenol hydroxylase and catechol 1,2-dioxygenase were located on a megaplasmid (pNL1) and were found to be separated by mobile genetic elements; their function was validated by heterologous expression in Escherichia coli and quantitative real-time PCR. A. lwoffii NL1 could degrade 0.5 g/L phenol within 12 h and tolerate a maximum of 1.1 g/L phenol, and showed resistance against multiple antibiotics and heavy metal ions. Overall, this study shows that A. lwoffii NL1 can be potentially used for efficient phenol degradation in heavy metal wastewater treatment.

2021 ◽  
Archit Kumar Vasan ◽  
Nandan Haloi ◽  
Rebecca Joy Ulrich ◽  
Mary Elizabeth Metcalf ◽  
Po-Chao Wen ◽  

AbstractGram-negative bacteria pose a serious public health concern, primarily due to a higher frequency of antibiotic resistance conferred to them as a result of low permeability of their outer membrane (OM). Antibiotics capable of traversing the OM typically permeate through OM porins; thus, understanding the permeation properties of these porins is instrumental to the development of new antibiotics. A common macroscopic feature of many OM porins is their ability to transition between functionally distinct open and closed states that regulate transport properties and rate. To obtain a molecular basis for these processes, we performed tens of microseconds of molecular dynamics simulations of E. coli OM porin, OmpF. We observed that large-scale motion of the internal loop, L3, leads to widening and narrowing of the pore, suggesting its potential role in gating. Furthermore, Markov state analysis revealed multiple energetically stable conformations of L3 corresponding to open and closed states of the porin. Dynamics between these functional states occurs on the time scale of tens of microseconds and are mediated by the movement of highly conserved acidic residues of L3 to form H-bonds with opposing sides of the barrel wall of the pore. To validate our mechanism, we mutated key residues involved in the gating process that alter the H-bond pattern in the open/closed states and performed additional simulations. These mutations shifted the dynamic equilibrium of the pore towards open or closed states. Complementarily, the mutations favoring the open/closed states lead to increased/decreased accumulation of multiple antibiotics in our whole-cell accumulation assays. Notably, porins containing one of the mutations favoring the closed state has previously been found in antibiotic resistant bacterial strains. Overall, our 180 µs of simulation data (wild type and mutants) with concerted experiments suggests that regulation of the dynamic equilibrium between open and closed states of OM porins could be a mechanism by which Gram-negative bacteria acquire antibiotic resistance.

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